Yr9 Ecology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Yr9 Ecology Deck (68):
1

Define adaptation.

Feature of an organism that enables it to survive in a particular habitat.

2

Define behavioural adaptation.

Behaviour of an organism that enables it to survive in a particular habitat.

3

Define carnivore.

Consumer that only eats other animals.

4

Define consumer.

An organism in a food chain that eats other plants / or animals.

5

Define ecology.

The branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms.

6

Define ecosystem.

A system involving the interactions between a community of living organisms in a particular area and its non-living environment.

7

Define endangered.

A species is endangered if the population numbers are very low and it is at serious risk of extinction in the near future.

8

Define endemic species.

A species of organisms that is only found in one area of the world. eg New Zealand.

9

Define food chain.

Diagram to show the flow of chemical potential energy between organisms in a habitat.

10

Define habitat.

The place where an organism lives.

11

Define herbivore.

An organism that only consumes pants

12

Define omnivore.

An organism that consumes both plant and animals.

13

Define organism

A living thing.

14

Define predator.

An organism that hunts other animals.

15

Define prey.

An organism that is hunted by predators.

16

Define producer.

Plants - carry out photosynthesis to 'start' a food chain.

17

Define structural adaptation.

Physical part of an organism's body that enables it to survive in its habitat. eg fur on a bear

18

Define trophic level.

Level of organisation in a food chain or web. eg the producer is trophic level 1

19

Define physiological adaptions.

Adaptations such as change in the organism's biochemistry or internal mechanisms to deal with an environmental problem.

20

Define flora.

The plants of a particular region or habitat.

21

Name 3 endemic animal species in NZ.

Kea, Kiwi and Tui.

22

Name 3 extinct animal species in NZ.

Laughing owl, Moa and Bush wren.

23

Name 3 endangered plant species in NZ

Limestone cress, coastal peppercress and Dune swale daphne.

24

Name 3 endangered animal species in NZ.

Kakapo, Maui's dolphin and Black robin.

25

What are some reasons why NZ flora and fauna is endangered?

Humans colonizing New Zealand. Since the arrival of people in 1300AD, 3/4 of the natural forest has been removed which resulted in a reduction in habitat and food. Also, humans have accidently realised pest and predators.

26

Define fauna

The animal of a particular region or habitat.

27

Why is ecology important in NZ?

Ecology is important in NZ because we have lots native and endemic species. Endemic species only exist in New Zealand and so if they were to die out in NZ, the world would lose an entire species. Therefore, it is our responsibility to protect them. This is done by the study of ecology.

28

What is the difference between onshore and offshore islands?

Off shore islands are separated from the mainland by water so that predators cannot swim there. On shore islands are on the mainland but are separated by fences and nets.

29

What are some methods of protecting endangered species in NZ?

Trapping, Hunting, Bait stations, Aerial control, Offshore islands, Onshore islands.

30

Why are so many animals in NZ unique.

New Zealand separated from Gondwana around 65 million years ago. Due to the geographical isolation and a lack of ground-dwelling predators, our birds and other aniamls evolved unique characteristics.

31

What types of adaptations are there?

Structural, physiological, or behavioral.

32

What is an example of structural adaptation of the Kiwi?

Kiwi have fine whiskers at the base of their beak to help them see in the dark and also because they have poor eyesight.

33

What is an example of physiological adaptation of the kiwi?

It's highly developed sense of smell of smell used for hunting for food.

34

What is an example of behavioural adaptation of the Kiwi?

Kiwi are nocturnal to avoid risk of predator and competition for food.

35

What do you call an animal awake during the day?

Diurnal

36

Define biotic.

Biotic factors are any living component that affects the population of another organism, or the environment.

37

Define abiotic.

Abiotic factors are non-living parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the ecosystem.

38

What do you call competition between 2 different species?

Interspecific

39

What do you call competition between the same species?

Intraspecific

40

What is Mutualism?

Both species benefit.

41

What is Commensalism?

One species benefits. The other species is unaffected

42

What is Parasitism?

One species benefits. The other species is harmed.

43

What is Neutralism?

Neither species benefits or is harmed.

44

What symbiosis are there?

Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism and Neutralism.

45

If you can't create your own heat, you are?

ectothermic.

46

if you can create your own heat, you are?

endothermic

47

What do you call an organism that makes its own food?

producer

48

What do you call an organism that eats other organisms?

consumer

49

How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next?

10% the rest is lost in heat and waste

50

What si the trophic level?

A trophic level is an organism's position in a food chain

51

Define Population

Groups of organisms of the same species

52

Define Community

Populations of two or more different species living in the same area or region.

53

Define Biome

Biomes are very large ecological areas on the earth’s surface containing fauna and flora. Often defined by abiotic features.

54

Define Biosphere

Any area on earth that is inhabitants by organisms.

55

What is the order of the living things organisation?

Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biome and Biosphere.

56

What is the order of a food chain?

Producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, quaternary consumer.

57

How much energy remains from each stage transfer in a food chain?

10%

58

What is a herbivore?

Animal that only eats plants.

59

What is an omnivore?

An animal that eats a variety of other animals and plants.

60

What is a carnivore?

An animal that eats other animals.

61

Who is the 1st trophic level?

Producer

62

Why do food chains rarely consist of more than 5 trophic levels.

Most food chains rarely consist of more than five trophic levels because a lot of energy is lost at each level. After each level, only 10% of the energy is passed on, this means it’s harder for animals to get enough food. This also explains why there are fewer organisms at the top of the food chain compared to lower down.

63

Define food web.

Shows all the food chains in an ecosystem.

64

Name three kiwi adaptations

Whiskers at the base of their beak to aid in nocturnal navigation. Nostrils at the end of their beak assist them in finding food. Being nocturnal to avoid predators during the day.

65

What are the two types ways a producer can produce?

Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.

66

Define chemosynthesis

Synthesising organic compounds by bacteria or other living organisms using chemical reactions involving inorganic chemicals, normally in the absence of sunlight.

67

What is an example of an organism that uses chemosynthesis?

Giant tube worm living at the ocean floor.

68

Where does the other 90% of energy go?

respiration, growth and reproduction, defecation, and nonpredatory death