Flashcards in Yr9 Life Processes - Plant & Animal Deck (35):
What is attributes does a plant cell have?
The cell is rectangle, it has a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplast and large vacuoles.
What attributes does an animal cell have?
The cell is circular, it doesn't have a cell wall and chloroplast but does have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and small vacuoles.
Describe cell membrane and explain its function.
A thin envelope around the cell that controls the entry and exit of substances into the cell.
Describe nucleus and explain its function.
A dark dense sphere that controls the activities of the cell.
Describe cytoplasm and explain its function.
A jelly like substance that fills the cell where many important reactions take place
Describe cell wall and explain its function.
Made of strong fibers that make a rigid wall and supports the plants
Describe chloroplast and explain its function.
A structure which contains chlorophyll and makes food for plant photosynthesis.
Describe mitochondria and explain its function.
The organelle where respiration occurs, it carries out the process of respiration.
Describe vacuole and explain its function.
A bag of liquids that stores substances.
What is the purpose of a wide blade?
Captures maximum sunlight.
What is the purpose of a thin lead?
Allows maximum light penetration.
What is the purpose of a vein network?
Supports leaf and supplies water from roots and moved sugar to the rest of the plant.
Why is the leaf green?
Chlorophyll is present to trap light energy .
What is the purpose of pores in the leaf
Allows CO2 to move in and out of the leaf
What is the purpose of a cuticle (waxy surface)?
Prevent excessive water loss from epidermis by covering up any holes between the cells and keeps all the water inside.
What is the purpose of strong petiole?
Holds leaf up to sunlight.
What is the purpose of the Epidermis layer cells?
Protect/support the leaf and also makes the waxy surface
What is the purpose of the palisade layer cells?
Contains lots of chlorophyll for trapping sunlight energy
What is the purpose of the spongy layer cells?
Contains fewer chloroplasts than the palisade layer because the light is weaker. Also has air space to allow gas flow.
What is the purpose of the guard cells?
Located in the epidermis. control the size of the stomata regulated by water content.
How many guards cells are there?
2 guard cells per stomata.
What are the stomata?
A hole to allow gasses to enter the leaf, controlled by the guard cell.
What is the purpose of roots?
To keep the plant stable, absorb nutrients and water.
What is the purpose of root hairs?
To take the nutrients and water to the root.
In the presence of iodine, what colour will the white (no starch) part of the leaf turn?
In the presence of iodine, what colour will the green (starch )part of the leaf turn?
What is the petiole?
The stalk that attaches the leaf to the plant.
What are the two parts of the vein?
Xylem and phloem.
What is the function of the phloem?
Transports food and minerals.
What is the function of the xylem?
Transports water and nutrients.
How do you test a leaf with iodine?
Heat the leaf in boiling water then in boiling ethanol. Wash the leaf and drip iodine onto it.
Where are the chloroplasts located?
In the Palisade mesophyll layer.
Why are the stomata on the bottom of the leaf?
Top of the leaf is adapted to take in light and the bottom is used to take in CO2. This efficiently uses the area of a leaf.
what is the purpose of having small leaves?
Small leaves have a reduced surface area to enable plants to conserve water. Eg. pine needles have a small surface area and so looses very little water.