Bacillus organism appearance
Chains, palisades, clumps
Bacillus metabolic features
Aerobic (some have butanediol or lactate fermentation)
- Found in soil or on leaves
B. cereus causes ____
acute food poisoning
*NOT a zoonosis
B. cereus organism appearance (microscopic and on plate)
Large, flat, rough colonies on agar
Two varieties of B. cereus
Emetic = like staph, acute onet, nausea + cramps. 12 hour recovery
Diarrheal = slow onset, profuse diarrhea, no vomit.
B. cereus source
Cooked rice and pasta that has been cooled too slowly
*spores germinate and produce toxin
B. cereus toxins
Bacillus zoonotic organism
B. anthracis organism appearance (microscopic and on plate)
Cut glass appearance on blood agar
B. anthracis contains a _______ capsule.
What stains for this?
B. anthracis presents as _____--> _______
Then it becomes ______
It is able to _________
Papule ---> eschar
infect any organ
B. anthracis spores are viable in ____ for ______
soil for >50 years
Human infection of B. anthracis comes from _____ or ______
handling infected animal materials (spores coming in contact with mucous membranes)
Enters through abrasions
Spore life cycle of B. anthracis
- Enter MQ
- Germinate within phagolysosome when exposed to Oxygen radicals
B. anthracis toxin
Tripartite AB-type toxin
Three parts of B. anthracis toxin
B part = Protective antigen = binds and facilitates entry
Lethal Factor = MAPK protease (causes the necrosis)
Edema Factor = Calmodulin-dependent adenyl cyclase (makes cAMP, causes secretion of water into tissues)
B. anthracis toxin is carried on _____
The capsule is carried on ______
Both virulence factors of B. anthracis (toxin and capsid) are ______
Which one is necessary for full virulence?
need both for full virulence
B. anthracis antibiotics
B. anthracis vaccines
Live = from pX02-cured strain
PA Toxoid vaccine for military
B. anthracis preventive measures for stockmen?
Livestock vaccination and protective clothing
Passive immunity for B. anthracis possible?
Yes, new trials of anthrax immunoglobulin
gram negative aerobic coccobacillus
Brucella growth, motility, and metabolism/location
Facultative intracellular parasite
Brucella lives inside
MQ and PMN
(associated with granulomas)
(can be months)
Brucella clinical features (three main ones, then a few others)
- undulant fever
- long term debility
(also general weakness, psychoneuroses, malaise)
Brucella causes ____ in cattle.
How does this happen?
- bacteria bind to erythritol on testes or placenta
- forms foci that detach microvilli
Brucella in ungulates
Brucella transmited from male ungulates via
Humans acquire Brucella via what three methods
blood sample and serology or culture
How does Brucella spread in body?
from portal of entry via lymphatics and bloodstream
Brucella does not form an...
Disease is caused by an inflammatory response to bacterial growth
What causes undulant fever in Brucella
due to release from MQ and general host response to increased infectious titer
Brucella control (2)
- pasturized milk
- eradication from herds (immunization, segregation, testing and slaughtering of infected animals)
Doxy + Rifampin +/- streptomycin
***Limited effectiveness because of intracellular location
NOT in US, because of LPS toxicity
Live vaccine in russia
Francisella organism, shape, growth and metabolism
- gram negative coccobacillus
- slow growth
- fastidious requirements (Cysteine)
Francisella primary presentation (4 Sx)
- inflamed ulcerated papule at infection site
Abcess (liver, spleen, lungs, lymph nodes)
Type A = Rabbits
Type B = Beaver + Rodents
*type A is more severe..."Rabbit fever"
Francisella human transmission (4)
Skinning infected animals
Aerosol inhalation from carcass
Francisella infectious dose?
Other Francisella Epidemiological facts
- Weaponized in WW2
- Need P3 comtainment lab to grow it
Francisella pathogenic factors (4)
capsule that resists complement
coiling phagocytosis into MQ
Coiling phagocytosis into MQ prevents
Francisella grows in ___ and ___
MQ and PMN
*grows to high titer even in epithelial cells
What is a PAI (Francisella)?
What does it contain?
contains: 17 genes, T4SS + effectors (MQ survival)
Francisella control, antibiotics and vaccine