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Flashcards in 01 Advances in Cancer Therapy Louie Deck (11)
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What can cancer be considered as?

A disease of altered intracellular signaling, which lead to unregulated growth. Intracellular signaling pathways mediating these effects of growth factors. Formation of cellular colonies without the need of exogenous mitogens or growth factors. Loss of anchorage-dependent proliferation


What are the basic steps in the transformation from normal cells to cancer cells?

Normal colonic epithelium --> Dysplastic aberrant crypt focci --> Initial adenoma develops ---(Mutation in K-ras)--> Intermediate adenoma --> Late adenoma --> Carcinoma --> Metastasis


Whats the nomenclature for a malignant epithelial cancer?



Whats the nomenclature for a malignant mesenchyme (connective tissue) cancer?



Whats the nomenclature for a malignant hematopoietic cancer?

Leukemia, Lymphoma, Myeloma


What are the six essential alterations in cell physiology that collectively dictate malignant growth?

1) Sustaining proliferative signaling. 2) Evading growth suppressors. 3) Activating invasion and metastasis. 4) Enabling replicative immortality. 5) Inducing angiogenesis. 6) Resisting cell death


What are some emerging hallmarks of cancer?

Deregulating cellular energetics. Avoiding immune destruction. Tumor-promoting inflammation. Genome instability and mutation


What is the role of inflammation on cancer proliferation?

Infection or radiation induced injury. Inflammatory cells infiltrate the affected site and induce more injury. Induction of chronic and persistent inflammation


How does the tumor promote its own growth?

By releasing VEGF (Vascular epithelial growth factor), causing angiogenesis (bringing in new vessels for blood supply)


What are blood vessels like in a tumor?

Haphazardly organised compared to normal vasculature. Leaky


As the tumor progresses, what are the other stimulators it releases?

bFGF (basic fibroblast) --> VEGF (vascular) --> PDGF (platelet) --> IL-8