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What are some Genetic Changes that increase the risk of lung cancer?

Mutation tumor suppressor (p53). BCL-2, EGFR overexpression. K-RAS gene mutation. ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) mutation


What is prevention and early detection like for lung cancer?

Low-dose CT scan-based screening (detected LC at earlier stages, recommended in high-risk (age > 55, former smokers). No established chemoprevention agents yet. NO tumor marker to detect lung CA at early stages


What is Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)?

Oat cell, strongly linking to SMOKING. Most aggressive natural course. Only 14% of lung cancers


What is Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)?

Adenocarcinoma (incidence rising, most common in non-smokers). Squamous cell (clearly related to smoking). Large cell


What are the characteristics of SCLC?

Rapid doubling time. High rate of metastases. Treatment: highly sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. High rate of paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS)


What are the characteristics of NSCLC?

Relatively slow growing. Low rate of metastases. Treatment: surgery in Stage I and II; less sensitive to chemotherapy than SCLC. Low rate of PNS


What is Paraneoplastic Syndrome?

Due to tumor secretion of hormone like substances): Weight loss, Cushing's syndrome (ACTH), Anemia, Hyponatremia (SIADH), Hypercalcemia (PTH), Clubbing


What are the SCLC stages?

Limited disease. Extensive disease


What is Limited disease SCLC?

Tumor confined to hemithorax of origin and/or the mediastinum and supraclavicular nodes. Fits in a radiation field


What is Extensive disease SCLC?

Tumor not confined to hemithorax of origin. Distant metastasis


What are the treatment options for SCLC?

Single or combo modality. Surgery rarely, only in very early stage (if confined to chest w/o nodal invasion). Radiation: very radiosensitive


What is radiation therapy like in SCLC?

Goal = cure in limited disease (concurrent chemotx + radiation). Palliative role in extensive disease (bone pain, symptomatic brain mets, SVC syndrome). PCI (prophylactic cranial irradiation): Eradication of occult, microscopic brain metastasis


What are the combination chemotx choices for SCLC (all stages)?

EP (Etoposide, Cisplatin). EP + Radiation in limited disease. EC (Etoposide + Carboplatin). Cisplatin + Irinotecan


What are the complications of treatment with RT + CT (Etoposide/Cisplatin)?

Mucositis, Esophagitis, Esophageal stricture. Myelosuppression. Skin reactions. N/V, wight loss. Renal dysfunction


What is second line or salvage therapy for SCLC?

Most SCLC will relapse: median survival = only 4-5 months when treated w/ further chemotherapy. Second line chemotx provides palliation


What are the agents used in second line or salvage therapy for SCLC?

Docetaxel. Gemcitabine. Ifosfamide. Irinotecan. Paclitaxel. Topotecan. Temozolamide (if w/ brain mets). Vinorelbine


What is the prognosis and treatment tightly linked to for NSCLC?

Stage and well as patient factors (PS, histology, biomarker, gender, weight loss)


What is Stage I NSCLC?

Tumor of any size, located to lung, no lymph nodes


What is Stage II NSCLC?

Same as stage I, but WITH lymph node involvement


What is Stage IIIa NSCLC?

Tumor in chest wall, main bronchus or mediastinum


What is Stage IIIb NSCLC?

Tumor extending into mediastinal structure


Which stages of NSCLC are unresectable and have the lowest survival?

Stage IIIb, Stage IV


What are the treatment options for Resectable Stages of NSCLC (I, II, IIIa)?

Surgery is tx of choice w/ curative intent. Radiation (Stage I and II): treatment for medically inoperable, positive margins after surgery). Chemotherapy: adjuvant cisplatin-based (II, IIIa)


What is the treatment option for Stage IIIa (N2) - locally advanced, resectable NSCLC?

Standard: combined modality (3). Surgery --> adjuvant CT +/- RT. OR. Induction chemoradiation --> surgery


What is the treatment option for UNresectable Stage IIIa/IIIb NSCLC?

Associated w/ high rate of occult metastases; systemic relapse ~70%. Combined chemoradiation - concurrent better than sequential


What is treatment like for Advanced or Metastatic disease NSCLC?

Systemic chemotx: NSCLC only moderately sensitive. Benefit: good PS (performance status: 0-2), >70% Karnofsky, <10% weight loss. PS 3-4: no benefit from tx. Chemotx alone as palliation for Stage IIIb, IV


What type of NSCLC requires mutation testing?

Adenocarcinoma or Large cell. Not routinely recommended for Squamous NSCLC


What treatment options are there for a patient if EGFR or ALK negative?



What treatment options are there for a patient if EGFR positive?



What treatment options are there for a patient if ALK positive?