010514 normal structure of upper GI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 010514 normal structure of upper GI Deck (31):
1

four tunics of the general GI tract

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
adventitia/serosa

2

muscularis mucosae's fxn

local mvments of the mucosa and folding of the mucosa

3

composition of submucosa

loose collagenous and adipose tissue
large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels

mucous secreting glands in esophagus and duodenum

Meissner's plexus (parasympathetic ganglia)

4

muscularis externa has an inner layer of what?

circular muscular layer

5

nervous tissue in the muscularis externa is called?

myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus

6

what does myenteric plexus control

peristalsis

7

what does Meissner's plexus control

muscularis mucosae movement
blood flow
gland secretion

8

adventitia vs serosa

adventitia is loose connec tissue layer surrounding the GI tract; it's located outside of the peritoneal cavity

serosa is simple squmous epithelium (mesothelium) along with connective tissue that covers the GI tract WITHIN the peritoneal cavity

9

what regulates the enteric nervous system?

autonomic nervous system
or hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells

10

enteric nervous system

division of the autonomic nervous system

11

what does the paraysympathetic enteric nervous system do?

stimulates secretion and peristalsis

12

what does sympathetic enteric nervous sys do?

represses peristalsis and activates activity of sphincters

13

tubular glands are found in

stomach (secretory fxns)

14

epithelium of esophagus consists of

stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium with Langerhans cells

15

esophageal cardiac glands are located where, and what do they do?

lamina propria
secrete mucous to help propel food

16

submucosa of esophagus contains

esophageal glands (only esophagus and duodenum have glands in their submucosa)

17

esophageal glands of submucosa have what two cell types?

mucous cells (basal nucleus)
serous cells (centrally located nucleus)

18

what do serous cells of the esophageal glands of submucosa secrete?

pepsinogen and lysozyme

19

two physiological sphincters of the esophagus

pharyngoesophageal sphincter
gastroesophageal sphincter

20

four regions of the stomach

cardia
fundus-secretes acid and enyzmes
body-secretes acid and enzymes
pyloris

21

gastric glands are found where in the stomach?

lamina propria

22

Auerbach's plexus is found in what layer?

muscularis externa

23

gastric gland has what regions?

isthmus
neck
base

24

six cell types of the gastric gland

surface mucous/lining cells (gastric pit)
parietal (oxyntic) cells (isthmus, neck, base)
neck mucous cells (neck and base)
chief cells (base)
enteroendocrine cells (base)
stem cells (neck)

25

surface lining cells of the gastric gland secrete what?

mucous that's thick and dense--the mucous adheres to the mucosa and protects against acid

26

fxn of mucous neck cells

secrete soluble mucous to lubricate stomach contents

27

what are some things enteroendocrine cells secrete?

gastrin (G cells)
serotonin
somatostatin
enteroglucagon
histamine (ECL cells)

28

parietal cells' fxn

make HCl and gastric intrinsic factor

29

secretory canalicus is associated with

parietal cells

30

what causes enzyme release from chief cells?

hormones
neural action

31

stomach's response to a meal

cephalic phase
gastric phase
intestinal phase