Flashcards in 010815 upper GI pharm Deck (44):
what role do prostaglandins play in upper GI?
PGI2 and PGE2 are protective:
decrease gastric acid production
increase mucus production
H+/K+ ATPase pump inhibitors are used for
gastric and duodenal ulcers
pathological hypersecretory conditions like Zollinger Ellison syndrome
list types of H+/K+ ATP ase pump inhibitors
how do the H+/K+ ATPase pump inhibitors get targeted to their site of action?
they are prodrugs and only in the acidic gastric secretory canaliculi are they catalyzed to a sulfonamide
MOA of H+/K+ ATPase pump inhibitors
irreversibly inactivate the H+/K+ ATPase pump, so only way for the stomach to overcome it is to make new proton pumps!
metabolism of H+/K+ ATPase pump inhibitors
side effects of H+/K+ ATPase pump inhibitors
chronic use-increased risk of bone fracture, increased risk of infection
MOA of H2 receptor antagonists
competitively bind to histamine H2 receptors on parietal cells. reversible binding.
list H2 receptor antagonists
cimetidine (inhibits P450)
can develop tolerance to H2 receptor antagonists: true or false?
two main drug mechanisms for decreasing acid
H2 antagonist on parietal cell
proton pump inhibitors on parietal cell
in treating ulcers, what are the possible approaches?
increase protective mechanisms
sucrose sulfate and Al(OH)3
MOA of sucralfate
in stomach acid, forms a polymer gel in the acid environment. adheres to epithelial cells and ulcer craters to protect the ulcer by coating it from pepsin hydrolysis
which antacid produces CO2 as side effect?
which antacid has constipation as side effect? diarrhea?
so Mg and Al are combined in many antacid preps to offset each other
cautions for antacids
avoid concurrent administration of antacids and drugs intended for systemic absorprtion (antacids can change drug absoprtion and elimination because they alter gastric and urinary pH)
trivlanet bismuth and salicylate suspended in mix of magnesium aluminum silicate clay
called Pepto bismol
use of bismuth subsalicylate
black stools, black tongue side effect comes from?
antibiotic for H pylori consists of
multi agent antibiotic therapy (single one is ineffective)
tx strategy for NSAID related mucosal injury
if can't stop using NSAID:
replace prostaglandins (not used much)
treatment for active ulcers that are non-H pylori and non-NSAID
MOA of bismuth subsalicylate
scopolamine most acts through
Ach (muscarinic) receptor--antagonist
dimenhydrinate mostly acts through
histamine H1 receptor--antagonist
granisetron and ondansetron mainly act through
metoclopramide mainly acts through
prochlorperazine mainly acts through
use of scopolamine
motion sickness , post op nausea
use of dimenhydrinate
post op nausea
serotonin receptor antagonists--list them
use of serotonin receptor antagonists
chemotherapy, irradiation related nausea
use of prochlorperazine
general use, not chemo nausea
CB1 receptor agonist
use of dronabinol
prophylaxis of refractory, chemo induced vomiting
dexamethasone used for
in conjunction with other anti-emetics for chemo
substance P and NK1 receptor antagnoist
use of aprepitant
combo therapy-usally given with serotonin antagonist and corticosteroid
enhances gastric emptying by enhancing Ach release in myenteric plexus
use of metoclopramide
diabetic gastroparesis and GERD