1. anatomy of upper limb and back Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1. anatomy of upper limb and back Deck (18)
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1

pectoral girdle

scapula and clavicle

2

movements of the vertebral column

flexion/extension
lateral flexion/lateral extension
rotation

3

curvatures of vertebral column

cervical lordosis
thoraces kyphosis
lumbar lordosis
sacral kyphosis

4

purpose of vertebral curvatures

bipedalism
shock absorption
flexibility

5

vertebral ligaments

anterior longitudinal ligament
posterior longitudinal ligament
ligamentum flava

6

purpose of vertebral ligaments

reinforce and stabilise joints
limit range of movement

7

which ligament/s resist hyperextension?

anterior longitudinal ligament

8

which ligament/s resist hyperflexion?

posterior longitudinal ligament
ligamentum flava

9

intervertebral joints/discs

for weight bearing and strength
secondary cartilaginous
shock absorbers
thickness increases down the vertebral column

10

parts of intervertebral discs

nucleus pulposus - core, semi-fluid
annulus fibrosus - outer, strong

11

facet joints

between vertebral arches
synovial joints
movement depends on joint
cervical: flexion/extension/rotation
thoracic: rotation only
lumbar: flexion/extension only

12

back muscles

extrinsic - move limbs/ribs, superficial and intermediate
intrinsic - postural, deep
separated by thoracolumbar fascia

13

superficial back muscles

trapezius - rotates scapula
latissimus dorsi - adducts/medially rotates arm

14

intermediate back muscles

levator scapulae - elevates scapula
rhomboids - retracts scapula

15

deep back muscles

3 layers
splenius - in neck
erector spinal - main group
multifidus - very deep

16

erector spiane

3 muscle blocks
spinales - spinous processes
longissumus- transvers processes
iliocostalis - to ribs

17

purpose of multifidus

from transverse processes to spinous processes
extends, rotates and stabilises vertebral column

18

back nerve supply

anterior primary rami - to extrinsic muscles
posterior primary rami - to intrinsic muscles