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AQA A Level Physical Chemistry > 1. Atomic Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1. Atomic Structure Deck (153)
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1

What happened in 1662 to support the development of the atom?

Robert Boyle proposed that some substances could not be made simpler

2

What happened in 1803 to support the development of the atom?

John Dalton suggested elements were composed of atoms that could not be broken down

3

What happened in 1896 to support the development of the atom?

Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity - showing particles could come from inside the atom

4

What happened in 1911 to support the development of the atom?

Ernest Rutherford found that most of the mass and charge of the atom is concentrated in a tiny central nucleus

5

What is the relative mass of an electron?

1/1840

6

What are protons and neutrons held in the centre of atoms by?

The strong nuclear force

7

What does the strong nuclear force, holding together the protons and neutrons, overcome?

Electrostatic forces of attraction that hold electrons and protons together in the atom

8

What letter is sometimes used to represent the mass number?

A

9

What letter is sometimes used to represent the atomic number?

Z

10

What is the mass number?

The total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus

11

What is the atomic number?

The number of protons in the nucleus

12

What is the atomic number also called?

The proton number

13

What determines the chemical properties of an element?

The number of electrons in the outer shell

14

How many electrons does the first shell hold?

2

15

How many electrons does the second shell hold?

8

16

How many electrons does the third shell hold?

18

17

How many electrons does the fourth shell hold?

32

18

What expression shows the number of electrons in each shell? (where n is the number of the shell)

2n²

19

What will change for isotopes of the same element, in terms of chemical and physical properties?

Chemical properties will stay the same with each isotope, but physical properties will change due to the change in mass

20

How can relative atomic mass be worked out?

Average mass of one atom ÷ 1/12 mass of 1 atom of C-12

21

How can relative molecular mass be worked out?

Average mass of one molecule ÷ 1/12 mass of one atom of C-12

22

What is Mr?

Relative molecular mass

23

What is Ar?

Relative atomic mass

24

What does the mass spectrometer do?

Determines the relative isotopic mass and relative abundance for each isotope

25

An overview of how a time of flight mass spectrometer works?

The substances in the sample are converted to positive ions, accelerated and then arrive at a detector

26

What is relative isotopic mass?

Mass of each individual isotope relative to carbon-12

27

What an important initial condition required when using a time of flight spectrometer?

The apparatus is kept under high vacuum

28

Why is the time of flight apparatus kept under a high vacuum?

To prevent the ions that are produced from colliding with molecules from the air

29

What must happen if the sample isn't a gas before entered into a mass spectrometer?

It must be vaporised

30

What are the two ways that a sample can be ionised in preparation for mass spectrometry?

• electron impact

• electrospray ionisation