Flashcards in 12. Acids and Bases Deck (147)
What is a Bronsted-Lowry acid?
A proton donor
What is a Bronsted-Lowry base?
A proton acceptor
When can protons only be given up by acids?
When there is a base that accept them
What do reactions between acids and bases involve?
Where do most common acid-base reactions take place?
In aqueous solution
How are acids and bases generally defined? Why is this?
By the way they react with water - as most acid-base reactions take place in aqueous solution
What does how strong an acid/base is depend on?
How much they dissociate in water
How much do strong acids dissociate in water?
Almost completely dissociate
What is another phrase for 'dissociates'?
General equation for strong acids/bases dissociating in water?
HA ⇋ H⁺ + A⁻
How much do weak acids dissociate in water?
Only slightly dissociate
Example of a strong acid dissociating in water?
HCl ⇋ H⁺ + Cl⁻
Example of a strong base dissociating in water?
NaOH ⇋ Na⁺ + OH⁻
Example of a weak acid dissociating in water?
CH₃COOH ⇋ CH₃COO⁻ + H⁺
Example of a weak base dissociating in water?
NH₃ + H₂O ⇋ NH₄⁺ + OH⁻
Is the strength of an acid/base different to its concentration?
What does the acidity of a solution depend on?
The concentration of H⁺ (aq) ions
What is pH defined as?
What type of scale is the pH scale? Why is this?
Logarithmic, as the concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous solution covers a wide range
When there is a smaller pH, what will be true of the concentration of H⁺ ions?
Higher concentration of H⁺
What types of acid are there?
What is a monoprotic acid?
One that releases one H⁺ ion per molecule
What is a diprotic acid?
One that releases two H⁺ ions per molecule
Is HCl monoprotic or diprotic?
Is H₂SO₄ monoprotic or diprotic?
In strong acids, what is the moles of a monoprotic acid equal to? Why?
The moles of H⁺, therefore [H⁺] = conc. of acid, because strong acids fully dissociate
In strong diprotic acids, what are the moles of H⁺ equal to?
Double the moles of acid, therefore [H⁺] = double conc. of acid
What effect do diprotic acids have on pH compared to monoprotic?
Results in lower pH (stronger acid)
How many decimal places is pH given to?