[1] Basic Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [1] Basic Neoplasia Deck (55)
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1

Father of Medicine

Hippocrates

2

Thought pathophysiology of cancer was due to the imbalance of the 4 humors

Galen

3

Came up with the Cellular Theory of Disease

Rudolf Virchow

4

6 Components of Malignancy

1. Sustained ability to proliferate
2. Ability to evade growth suppressing controls
3. Ability to evade cellular death
4. Capacity to unlimited replication and immortality
5. Ability to produce their own blood supply
6. Capacity to invade and metastasize

5

Function: Oncogenes

Promote cell proliferation through growth and division

6

Oncogenes cause cancer to manifest when they are "on" or "off"?

Activation of even just one gene in a pair will cause cancer to manifest

7

Oncogenes reside in the body as?

Proto-oncogenes

8

Bladder CA results from what gene mutation?

Point Mutation in the HRAS Gene (Protein: Glycine -> Valine)

9

Function: NF2 Gene

Contact inhibition

10

Function: LKB1 Gene

Epithelial polarity protein that enhances epithelial structure and maintains tissue integrity

11

Proto-oncogenes with a gain/loss of function would result in cancer?

Gain of Function

12

TS Genes with a gain/loss of function would result in cancer?

Loss of Function

13

Mutator Genes with a gain/loss of function would result in cancer?

Loss of Function

14

Function: p21

Inhibits cell cycle progression and permits DNA repair to take place

15

Function: p53

Proofreader of DNA

DNA damage would result in the halting of the cell cycle for repair or apoptosis in cases of severe DNA Damage

16

Mutations in what gene are the most common genetic alterations found in human cancer

p53 Gene

17

Anti-Apoptotic Genes (2)

BCL-2
BCL-xL

18

Pro-Apoptotic Genes (4)

BAX
BAD
BAK
BID

19

Non-hodgkin's Lymphoma evades cell death very effectively through this method

Overexpression of BCL-2 causing the absence of apoptotic signals

20

How do tumor cells proliferate using autophagy?

Condition induced by nutrient deficiency causing them to recycle their organelles allowing them to survive until a blood source comes in

21

How do tumor cells proliferate using necrosis?

Recruitment of inflammatory cells that may be tumor-promoting

22

Define: Hayflick Limit

Number of times a normal human cell will divide until cell division stops

23

DNA Sequence of a Telomere

TTAGGG

24

What is a Telomerase

Ribonucleoprotein enzyme which preserves the itnegrity of telomeres

25

Define: Nowell's Hypothesis

Eventual mutations that will over time become a malignancy

26

3 Major Features of Invasion

1. Cell adhesion to basement membrane
2. Local proteolysis of the membrane by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)
3. Movement of the cell through the rent in the membrane and the extracellular matrix

27

2 pack a day smoking leads to how much increased risk of esophageal cancer

7-8x Risk

28

What is the most carcinogenic substance produced by man

Tobacco

29

Most notorious dust one can encounter

Asbestos

30

Vinyl chloride is notorious for causing?

Angiosarcoma