Flashcards in  Basic Neoplasia Deck (55)
Father of Medicine
Thought pathophysiology of cancer was due to the imbalance of the 4 humors
Came up with the Cellular Theory of Disease
6 Components of Malignancy
1. Sustained ability to proliferate
2. Ability to evade growth suppressing controls
3. Ability to evade cellular death
4. Capacity to unlimited replication and immortality
5. Ability to produce their own blood supply
6. Capacity to invade and metastasize
Promote cell proliferation through growth and division
Oncogenes cause cancer to manifest when they are "on" or "off"?
Activation of even just one gene in a pair will cause cancer to manifest
Oncogenes reside in the body as?
Bladder CA results from what gene mutation?
Point Mutation in the HRAS Gene (Protein: Glycine -> Valine)
Function: NF2 Gene
Function: LKB1 Gene
Epithelial polarity protein that enhances epithelial structure and maintains tissue integrity
Proto-oncogenes with a gain/loss of function would result in cancer?
Gain of Function
TS Genes with a gain/loss of function would result in cancer?
Loss of Function
Mutator Genes with a gain/loss of function would result in cancer?
Loss of Function
Inhibits cell cycle progression and permits DNA repair to take place
Proofreader of DNA
DNA damage would result in the halting of the cell cycle for repair or apoptosis in cases of severe DNA Damage
Mutations in what gene are the most common genetic alterations found in human cancer
Anti-Apoptotic Genes (2)
Pro-Apoptotic Genes (4)
Non-hodgkin's Lymphoma evades cell death very effectively through this method
Overexpression of BCL-2 causing the absence of apoptotic signals
How do tumor cells proliferate using autophagy?
Condition induced by nutrient deficiency causing them to recycle their organelles allowing them to survive until a blood source comes in
How do tumor cells proliferate using necrosis?
Recruitment of inflammatory cells that may be tumor-promoting
Define: Hayflick Limit
Number of times a normal human cell will divide until cell division stops
DNA Sequence of a Telomere
What is a Telomerase
Ribonucleoprotein enzyme which preserves the itnegrity of telomeres
Define: Nowell's Hypothesis
Eventual mutations that will over time become a malignancy
3 Major Features of Invasion
1. Cell adhesion to basement membrane
2. Local proteolysis of the membrane by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)
3. Movement of the cell through the rent in the membrane and the extracellular matrix
2 pack a day smoking leads to how much increased risk of esophageal cancer
What is the most carcinogenic substance produced by man
Most notorious dust one can encounter