1) Cardiopulm Physiology Flashcards Preview

2) Cardiopulm > 1) Cardiopulm Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1) Cardiopulm Physiology Deck (46):
1

Goals of CPPT?

*Prevent
*Mitigate
*Reverse CP dysfxn

2

What can any insult to the O2 transport system cause?

Impairments & decr exercise tol

3

What can abn's of CV & pulm systems cause?

Limitations in physical fxning

4

Minute Ventilation

Movement of air in & out of the lungs as a result of respiratory muscle activity

5

Normal minute ventilation?

21%

6

Where does gas exchange occur?

Between alveoli & blood in pulmonary capillaries

7

Where must blood have sufficient transit time to allow for diffusion?

Pulmonary Capillary

8

On which side of the heart does oxygenated blood enter?

Left side

9

During what phase of the cardiac cycle does blood enter the heart?

Diastole

10

When blood enters the L ventricle, what is the myocardium up to?

Its relaxed & compliant

11

W/what conditions is myocardial compliance low?

MI & LVH

12

What does decr myocardial compliance cause?

*Impaired ability to fill L ventricle
*Decr CO
*Dyspnea

13

What will factors that alter the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve affect?

O2 delivery to skeletal muscle

14

What happens w/a shift to the left of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?

Impairs the amount of O2 extracted by muscle

15

What happens w/a shift to the right of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve & why?

Acidosis & incr body temp bc it facilitates O2 unloading from hemoglobin

16

Steps of O2 transport pathway

1) Fully O2-ed blood gets delivered to peripheral tissues

2) Cells uptake O2 from blood

3) Cells use O2

4)Partially desaturated blood is returned to the lungs

17

If a pt can't generate (-) pressure, what might need to happen?

Night time ventilation

18

During inspiration, is alveolar or thoracic pressure greater & why?

Alveolar-->Bc of respiratory muscle contraction

19

Does the heart like positive pressures?

No

20

During exhalation, is alveolar or thoracic pressure smaller?

Alveolar

21

True or False: A healthy lung resists enlargement during inspiration.

True

22

Is a normal lung very compliant?

Yes

23

What happens to lungs of pt's who have diseases that cause alveolar, interstitial, or pleural fibrosis & edema?

Lungs become rigid-->Decr compliance

24

What incr compliance?

Emphysema & age

25

What percent of RAW is the upper A/W responsible for?

45%

26

Laminar Flow

Streamlined flow of air molecules

27

Turbulent Flow

High AW resistance caused by frequent molecular collisions from mucus, exudate, tumor, & other obstructions

28

True or False: Healthy lungs should have a mix of laminar & turbulent flow

True

29

If a pt's lungs have incr compliance, what does that mean for their chest & lungs?

Chest moves out & there's decr recoil of lungs

30

In what region of the lungs is ventilation favored?

Lower lungs

31

Should O2 diffusion be a fast or slow process?

Fast

32

Perfusion

Blood in pulmonary circulation that's available for gas exchange

33

What is perfusion dependent on?

*Pulmonary vascular resistance
*Ejection fraction
*Gravity

34

True or False: Pulmonary circulation operates at a low pressure compared to systemic circulation.

True

35

Normal PAP Range

10-20mmHg

36

What has a big effect on lung perfusion?

Hydrostatic Pressure

37

What does hydrostatic pressure have a big effect on?

Lung Perfusion

38

Hypoxia Vasoconstriction

Pulmonary blood vessels constriction in response to low arterial O2 pressure & low pH

*Protective reflex of moving blood away from underventilated/poorly oxygenated areas of the lung

39

What can hypoxia vasoconstriction cause?

Pulmonary HTN

40

What areas have the most optimal gas exchange?

Areas w/greatest amount of perfusion & ventilation

41

What can affect the VQ ratio?

Postural changes

42

Areas w/low VQ ratio (Q

A shunt

43

Areas w/high VQ ratios (V

Dead space

44

In what position is the VQ ratio best?

Upright

45

In what part of the lung does optimal VQ ratio occur?

Mid Lung

46

What problems can mess w/O2 transport?

*Respiratory muscle dysfxn
*Chest wall deformities
*VQ mismatching
*Diffusion abn's
*Inadequate CO
*Peripheral blood flow limitations
*Low O2-carrying capacity