9) Diagnostic Testing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9) Diagnostic Testing Deck (48):
1

Holter Monitor

Used for continuous 24hr ECG monitoring to provide info for dx & management of arrhythmias

2

Indications for holter monitor use

*Dizziness
*Dysrhythmias
*SOB
*Syncope
*Eval pacemaker fxn

3

What should pt be doing while wearing a holter monitor?

Document any abn's

4

What is electrophysiology (EPS) used for?

Used to investigate the cause & location of abn rhythms to determine the best tx

5

What is the indication for EPS?

Abn heart rhythms

6

Echocardiography

Non-invasive US of the heart to get a real-time image to assess performance of the heart, valves, quantify volumes, etc

7

Indications for EKG

*Pericardial effusion
*Cardiac tamponade
*Diopathic cardiomyopathy
*Mitral valve regurgitation/prolapse
*Aortic regurgitation
*Aortic stenosis
*Vegetation of valves
*Masses
*Ischemia
*Aneurysm
*Thrombus
*Aortic dissection

8

Describe a transesophageal echo

Scope is put down the throat to get a better pic of the heart

9

What does a transesophageal echo allow for?

Improved visualization of cardiac structures & fxn

10

What is a transesophageal echo good for?

Peri- & intraoperative monitroing of the left ventricle

11

What is transesophageal echo the test of choice for?

Cardioembolic stroke

12

What is the test of choice for cardioembolic stroke?

Transesophageal echo

13

Stess echo

Used to eval atypical sx's such as dyspnea & fatigue or pt's w/normal ECGS but atypical chest pain syndromes

14

What does the stress echo eval?

Ischemia-induced heart wall motion abn's

15

Describe contrast echo

IV contrast is injected to get improved accuracy to assess myocardial perfusion & ventricular chambers

16

What are the indications for a contrast echo?

*Assess areas of at-risky myocardium for damage
*Absence/Presence of coronary collateral flow
*Revascularization of occluded arteries after angioplasty

17

What are imaging modalities used for?

To eval for CAD & cardiac dysfxn

18

Single-Photon Emission CT

Non-invasive imaging method to detect & quantify myocardial perfsion & contractility defects

19

SPECT

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

20

What is SPECT used in conjunction w/?

Radioactive Isotopes

21

PET

Provides visualization & direct measurement of metabolic fxning (glucose & fatty acid metabolism) of the heart

22

What is the gold standard for blood flow measurement & metabolic assessment of the heart?

PET

23

What is PET the gold standard for?

Blood flow measurement & metabolic assessment of the heart

24

What does the heart use for energy while at rest?

Fatty Acids

25

CT

Noninvasive method used to ID CV masses, aortic aneurysms, or pericardial thickening

26

CT Angiography

Highlights coronary arteries to eval for CHD

27

Spiral CT

3D image used to eval presence of PE

28

What is the advantage to spiral CT over regular CT?

It detects arterial abn's w/greater precision & is faster

29

Does a spiral CT always require contrast?

No

30

If a pt has a spiral CT, can you tx them that day?

NO!

31

EBCT

Electron Beam CT

32

Electron Beam CT

Noninvasive method of detecting & quantifying coronary atherosclerosis by measuring coronary calcification

33

Multi-Gated Acquisition (MGA) Imaging

Noninvasive technique to calculate left ventricular ejection fraction

34

MUGA

Multi-Gated Acquisition Imaging

35

MRI

Evals morphology, cardiac blood flow, & myocardial contractility for valve disease & shunts

36

Radioactive Nuclide Perfusion Imaging (RNPI)

*

37

RNPI

Radioactive Nuclide Perfusion Imaging

38

Pharmacologic Stress Test

Stress test while pt is resting

39

Cardiac Catheterization

Invasive procedure that establishes/confirms a dx of cardiac dysfxn, heart disease, depicts severity of heart disease, or depicts severity of CAD or valve dysfxn

40

What does cardiac catheterization specifically determine?

*Presence & severity of CAD
*Left ventricular fxn
*Valvular disease
*Pericardial disease
*Guidelines for optimal management of pt

41

What is cardiac catherization called when it is used as a tx?

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)

42

When can cardiac catheterization/PCI be used as an alternative to CABG?

If only a single vessel is involved

43

Ergonovine Stimulation

Diagnostic test for coronary spasm

44

What is bronchoscopy used for?

*Evals & manages some congenital pulmonary anomalies & acquired diseases
*Study normal & variant anatomy
*Study pathological changes of the bronchial wall & lumen

45

PT implications for pt's post-cardiac cath/PCI

*Place pressure on area 4-8hrs after procedure
*Pt's will typically be on bedrest w/LE immobilizer
*Some pt's may have groin pain
*If the procedure was done through the femoral artery, no PT

46

What do you need to have to do PT on a pt who has cardiac cath/PCI through the femoral artery?

MD note for clearance

47

What are the main things to look for when interpreting a cardiac cath?

*EF
*Blocked arteries
*Blockage percentage
*Valve dysfxn

48

When is bronchoscopy indicated?

*Assess infections that can't be evaled from a sample
*Clear viscous secretions
*Retrieve foreign object