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Flashcards in 1 Class Differences In Achievement Deck (16):

Cultural factors?

Parents education



Working class -> restricted code (limited and simple)

Middle class -> Elaborated code (Wider vocabulary and complex sentences)

Elaborated code -> Used in education, teachers, exams, textbooks


Parents Education

Feinstein -> Most important factor

Parenting style: Educated -> Discipline, high expectations and active learning

Behaviours -> Educated -> More aware of child's progress


Parents Education 2 (Not style or behaviour)

Language -> Communication affects cognitive development

Income -> Educated -> Promote children's development


Working class subculture

Immediate gratification -> Wanting rewards rather than make the sacrifice

Fatalism-> 'Whatever will be, will be'

Low value on education-> Hyman argues that the working class don't value education
Douglas argues that working class parents show less interest


Criticism of Cultural Deprevation Theory

Ignores importance of material factors of poverty

Ignores impact of school factors

Blames victim for their failure


Material Deprivation

Poor Housing -> Overcrowding means pupils have nowhere to do homework

Poor diet -> Lead to illness -> Absence from school and lack of concentration

Low income -> Problems are caused by low income


Cultural Capital Theory

Marxists (Bourdieu) -> Middle pupils are more successful due to parents having more capital

Economic capital: Wealth MC own

Cultural capital: Attitudes, values, knowledge of MC

Educational capital: MC use capitals as an advantage to obtain the educational capital



Labels are meaning to attach to someone to make sense of them.

Becker -> Middle class -> Bright, motivated, cooperative, ideal pupil

Underlies many of processes within schools causing underachievement


Self fulfilling prophecy

Prediction made about someone that comes true because it has been made

'What teachers believe, pupils achieve'



Extreme and institutionalised form of labelling

IQ of pupils labelled as less abled and placed actual fell over time

Lower streams maybe denied access into the same curriculum


Pupil Subcultures

Pro-school subcultures -> formed by pupils in higher streams

Anti-school subcultures -> Reject school values and invert them (opposite of pro school culture)

Status and subcultures -> Lacey argues pupils join because school deprives them of status by labelling them as failures



Archer -> Habitus to understand relationship between WC and underachievement

Habitus -> Social class way of thinking, being and acting


Identities and achievement

Symbolic capital and violence -> Commits symbolic violence by devaluing WC's habitus

Nike identities-> Violence leads pupils to creat alternative class identities and gain symbolic capital through branded goods

Losing yourself -> Succeeding at school means being inauthentic and changing yourself to fit in



'Fitting in' -> problem for WC boys

Faced being judged worthless at school for wearing street clothes or worthless for not doing so


Evans (2009)

Self exclusion from success

Successful girls face hidden barriers

Strong attachment to their families and intend to remain at home at study