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Flashcards in 3 Gender Differences In Education Deck (10):
1

Gender Patterns in achievements

GCSE, girls are around 10 percentage points ahead

AS and A Level, girls are more likely to pass and get higher grades (gap narrower than at GCSE)

Girls do better in traditional boys subjects like sciences

More girls than boys go into higher education

2

Influence of feminism

Feminism have had an impact on women's rights and opportunities through campaigns to win changes in the law

Ideas are likely to have affected girls self-image and aspirations.

3

Changing perceptions and ambitions

Girls had high career aspirations and so needed educational qualifications (Francis)

Independence is valued more than in past (Beck and Beck-Gernsham)

Many working-class girls with poor job prospects have stereotyped aspirations for marriage and children (Fuller)

4

Changes in the Family

Increase in divorce rate (40% end this way)

More lone parent families (90% female headed)

More cohabitation and decrease in first marriages

Smaller families and single women

5

Changes in women employment

Changes in the law have improved working women

1970 Equal Pay Act and 1975 Sex Discrimination Act give women more employment rights

Pay gap between men and woman have halved

6

Internal Factors

Equal opportunities policies

Role models

Coursework

Stereotypes in learning materials

Teacher attention

Selection attention

7

Equal Opportunities Policies

GIST and WISE encourage girls into science and technology

National Curriculum (1988) girls and boys now largely study the same subjects

Meritocracy- Education is more meritocratic, girls have more than equal opportunities

8

Teacher's attention

Boys receive more attention overall because they attracted more punishments and misbehaviour (French and French)

Boys receive more attention, disciplined more harshly and felt picked on -> lower expectations (Francis)

Boys dominate class discussions whereas girls prefer group work and better at listening and cooperating (Swann)



9

Selection and League Tables

Girls are more successful than boys, more attractive to schools

Boys are lower-achieving and badly-behaved. Seen as liability students who will give them a bad image

Liberal feminists welcome the progress made by equal opportunities

Radical feminists are more critical

10

Identity, class and girls' achievement

Hyper-heterosexual feminine identities (appearance)

Boyfriends bring symbolic capital

Being 'loud' adopting outspoken, assertive identities

Ladettes: Adopting a tomboyish 'Nike' identity