1: Cognitive neurology Flashcards Preview

Neurology Week 5 2018/19 > 1: Cognitive neurology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Cognitive neurology Deck (54)
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1

What is cognition?

Mental action of acquiring and understanding knowledge

Using thought, experience and senses

2

What is the general definition of dementia?

Significant cognitive decline

interfering with daily activities

not explained by other processes

3

Dementia tends to be a (sudden / progressive) disease.

progressive decline in cognition

4

Which percentage of over 65s have been diagnosed with dementia?

Around 7%

5

What is one of the biggest risk factors for developing dementia?

Increasing age

6

Which infections can cause dementia?

HIV

Syphilis

Prion disease (i.e contact with the misfolded protein)

7

What acute neurological diseases cause a decline in cognition?

Viral encephalitis

Head injury

Stroke

8

What are the symptoms of transient global amnesia?

Amtegrade amnesia (difficulty laying down new memories)

Retrograde amnesia (loss of short term memories)

but preserved knowledge of self

9

Transient global amnesia typically lasts how long?

4 - 6 hours

Never more than 24 hours

10

What can trigger transient global amnesia?

Emotions

Changes in temperature

11

Which type of amnesia is short-lived compared to transient global amnesia but tends to be a recurrent problem?

Transient epileptic amnesia

12

Which brain structure is found in the temporal lobe and has a role in learning and memory?

Hippocampus

13

What is the clinical name for 'everyday forgetfulness' which impacts daily living?

Functional cognitive impairment

14

What is the course of functional cognitive impairment ('everyday forgetfulness')?

Fluctuating

15

What are the courses of

a) functional cognitive deficit

b) dementia?

a) Fluctuating

b) Progressive decline

16

What disorders need to be excluded in forgetful patients?

Dementia

Mood disorders

17

What is a prion disease?

Disease caused by misfolded proteins

18

What is a well-known prion disease causing rapid brain degeneration?

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

19

In which age of patient does CJD tend to present?

60s

20

What are the clinical features of sporadic CJD?

Rapid onset dementia

Myoclonus

21

What is the average life expectancy of a patient diagnosed with CJD?

4 months

22

What is the cause of CJD?

Misfolded protein

23

What investigations are used to diagnose CJD?

EEG

MRI brain

Lumbar puncture (CSF markers)

24

What is a common disease causing gradual-onset dementia?

Alzheimer's disease

25

Alzheimer's disease is a ____ condition causing dementia.

neurodegenerative

26

What are the clinical features of Alzheimer's disease?

Forgetfulness

Apraxia

Visual problems

27

At what age do patients tend to develop Alzheimer's disease?

> 65

28

Younger patients who are diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease tend to have ___ symptoms.

atypical

visual disturbances. aphasia

29

What are the atypical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?

Visual disturbances (feeling like you're going to step into a pit)

Aphasia (difficulty communicating, naming things)

30

How is Alzheimer's disease investigated?

MRI brain - atrophy of temporal lobes

Lumbar puncture - amyloid in CSF sample (not specific)