What is cognition?
Mental action of acquiring and understanding knowledge
Using thought, experience and senses
What is the general definition of dementia?
Significant cognitive decline
interfering with daily activities
not explained by other processes
Dementia tends to be a (sudden / progressive) disease.
progressive decline in cognition
Which percentage of over 65s have been diagnosed with dementia?
What is one of the biggest risk factors for developing dementia?
Which infections can cause dementia?
Prion disease (i.e contact with the misfolded protein)
What acute neurological diseases cause a decline in cognition?
What are the symptoms of transient global amnesia?
Amtegrade amnesia (difficulty laying down new memories)
Retrograde amnesia (loss of short term memories)
but preserved knowledge of self
Transient global amnesia typically lasts how long?
4 - 6 hours
Never more than 24 hours
What can trigger transient global amnesia?
Changes in temperature
Which type of amnesia is short-lived compared to transient global amnesia but tends to be a recurrent problem?
Transient epileptic amnesia
Which brain structure is found in the temporal lobe and has a role in learning and memory?
What is the clinical name for 'everyday forgetfulness' which impacts daily living?
Functional cognitive impairment
What is the course of functional cognitive impairment ('everyday forgetfulness')?
What are the courses of
a) functional cognitive deficit
b) Progressive decline
What disorders need to be excluded in forgetful patients?
What is a prion disease?
Disease caused by misfolded proteins
What is a well-known prion disease causing rapid brain degeneration?
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
In which age of patient does CJD tend to present?
What are the clinical features of sporadic CJD?
Rapid onset dementia
What is the average life expectancy of a patient diagnosed with CJD?
What is the cause of CJD?
What investigations are used to diagnose CJD?
Lumbar puncture (CSF markers)
What is a common disease causing gradual-onset dementia?
Alzheimer's disease is a ____ condition causing dementia.
What are the clinical features of Alzheimer's disease?
At what age do patients tend to develop Alzheimer's disease?
Younger patients who are diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease tend to have ___ symptoms.
visual disturbances. aphasia
What are the atypical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
Visual disturbances (feeling like you're going to step into a pit)
Aphasia (difficulty communicating, naming things)
How is Alzheimer's disease investigated?
MRI brain - atrophy of temporal lobes
Lumbar puncture - amyloid in CSF sample (not specific)