What is the most common type of motor neuron disease in adults?
What is its alternate name?
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
or Lou Gehrig's disease
Which disease, causing progressive cognitive decline, is on the spectrum of motor neuron disease?
Frontotemporal dementia is related to ___ ___ ___.
motor neuron disease
Where do MND symptoms tend to start?
e.g foot drop
What are the bulbar muscles responsible for?
Which muscles, if affected by MND, cause difficulty swallowing, speaking and chewing?
Which protein is implicated in MND?
What percentage of MND diseases are
MND is a neuro___ condition.
What are the symptoms of MND?
Difficulty speaking, breathing and swallowing
Sensory loss is usually ABSENT
Which group of signs are seen in MND?
UMN and LMN signs
What is the course of MND?
starts in a distal limb or bulbar muscles and continually spreads
What is the most common type of MND?
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
ice bucket challenge
What is the prognosis of newly diagnosed MND?
2 - 3 years to live
MND is more common in (males / females).
Describe the signs of upper motor neuron disease.
Describe the signs of lower motor neuron disease.
Slow / absent reflexes
How can you elicit bulbar UMN signs?
Which distal muscles waste especially in MND?
first interosseous muscle on dorsal surface
When a doctor sees thenar atrophy, what do they often misdiagnose the patient with?
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Patients with MND often develop a cognitive deficit.
Which protein is thought to be involved?
Association with frontotemporal dementia
How are patients with bulbar MND managed?
Refer to SLT and occupational therapy
Consider feeding tube, oxygen as disease progresses
What is the prognosis of bulbar-onset MND compared to ALS?
because important muscles are affected sooner
Which clinical signs are diagnostic of MND?
Upper motor neuron signs
Lower motor neuron signs
Before diagnosing MND, it is important to ___ mimic diseases.
eliminate mimic diseases
using an EEG, imaging etc.
Which investigation can be used to examine muscles for the degeneration seen in MND?
How is MND investigated and diagnosed?
Largely a clinical diagnosis
Any investigations are to rule out other diseases
What is the treatment for MND?
No treatment exists
Variants of ALS tend to have a (better / worse) prognosis.
Which disease, causing progressive cognitive decline, is associated with MND?