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Reproduction Week 2 2018/19 > 1: Contraception > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Contraception Deck (74)
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1

What do contraceptives do?

Prevent pregnancy

2

Why do women choose to use contraceptives?

Family planning - no. of children and timing; to avoid unplanned pregnancy

For non-contraceptive reasons

3

How many babies are born every two seconds?

Six babies every two seconds

4

The prevalence of contraceptive use is higher in (high / low) income countries.

high income countries

5

What are some non-contraceptive reasons for using contraception?

Heavy, irregular or painful periods

Premenstrual syndrome (abdo pain, bloating, cravings...)

Endometriosis

Menstrual migraine

Acne

6

Contraceptive use is described in terms of perfect use and typical use.

What's the difference between these two?

Perfect use - 100% compliance, never forgetting

Typical use - allows for occasional omission

Obviously effectiveness is less for typical use, but it's more realistic

7

How long can sperm live in the female reproductive tract for?

5 days

8

How long does an egg survive in the female reproductive tract once released from the ovaries?

12 - 24 hours

9

For the greatest chance of conceiving, when in the menstrual cycle should a woman have sex?

Days preceding and following ovulation

Ovulation occurs at roughly Day 14, so Days 8 - 18 ish

10

What measurement is used to describe the effectiveness of contraceptive methods?

Pearl index

11

What does the Pearl index describe?

No. of contraceptive failures per 100 women per year

12

How is the Pearl index calculated?

(Number of accidental pregnancies) x 1200 / Total number of months using contraceptive

13

How long do

a) sperm

b) eggs

survive in the female reproductive tract?

a) 5 days

b) 12 - 24 hours

14

The Pearl index describes the number of ___ pregnancies experienced per ___ women per year.

accidental pregnancies per 100 women per year

It's a measure of how effective a contraceptive method is

15

How does body temperature change around the time of ovulation?

Basal body temperature increases by around 1 degree Celsius

From 36 to 37 degrees Celsius, supports the sperm and eggs

16

How does the position of the cervix change around ovulation?

Cervix rises up into vagina and the internal + external os open up

17

What are the properties of cervical mucus around the time of ovulation?

Thin and slippery

So the sperm can swim through it easier

Sorry for the imagery

18

What are two natural methods of contraception?

Withdrawal method - man pulls out before he ejaculates

Lactational amenorrhoea - post-natal state that lasts for up to 6 months

19

What is the Pearl index for no contraception use in a sexually active woman?

85

i.e 85 out of 100 sexually active women would fall pregnant each year if they didn't use contraception

20

What is the Pearl index for the withdrawal method?

Why?

22 i.e 22 out of 100 women will fall pregnant each year if the man uses the withdrawal method

Because there's no barrier to sperm entry and it all relies on the man's reflexes, plus a large proportion of sperm are contained in the initial ejaculate so he has to be quick

21

What are the three criteria for lactational amenorrhoea to be an effective state of natural contraception?

1. Woman is exclusively breastfeeding

2. Less than 6 months post-birth

3. Woman isn't have periods

22

What is the most commonly used contraceptive method in the UK?

Combined hormonal contraception (CHC)

i.e the oestrogen/progrestrogen contraceptive pill

23

The CHC stops ___.

stops ovulation

24

The CHC is (short / long)-acting.

short acting

has to be taken daily

25

What is the Pearl index of the CHC?

0.2

i.e 0.2 per 100 women getting pregnant per year, very effective

26

Apart from the CHC, which other hormonal tablet is used for contraception?

Progesterone only pill / Desogestel / "Mini pill"

27

The mini pill contains a progesterone precursor called ___.

desogestel

28

Apart from tablets, what are other medical methods of contraception?

Barriers - male and female condoms, diaphragms and caps

Contraceptive implant

Contraceptive injection

Intrauterine system (IUS)

Intrauterine device (IUD)

Male and female sterilisation

29

What are three adaptations the female reproductive tract makes around the time of ovulation to increase the likelihood of pregnancy?

Basal body temperature increases

Cervical mucus becomes thin and "slippery"

Cervix rises and internal + external os open

30

For how long does the average contraceptive implant last?

3 years