Which enzyme does HIV use to convert its RNA into DNA?
Which enzyme does HIV use to integrate its genetic material into the DNA of its host cell?
Which enzyme does HIV use to assemble its new protein coats?
Which enzymes does HIV use to
a) break up proteins to form new coats
b) convert its RNA into DNA
c) insert its DNA into the DNA of the host cell?
b) Reverse transcriptase
What are the goals of anti-retroviral therapy?
Reduce viral load to undetectable levels
Restore the immune system to a competent level
Reduce HIV morbidity and mortality
Minimise drug toxicity
How many anti-retrovirals are used for highly active therapy?
3 drugs from at least 2 different classes
Anti-retroviral drugs have a lot of ___ ___.
different depending on each drug - do we need to know all these?
Anti-retroviral drugs interact with the liver in which way?
INDUCE or INHIBIT liver enzymes (depends on class)
So they alter the metabolism of other drugs - must check on a case-by-case basis
What is a voluntary process which newly-diagnosed HIV patients may choose to take part in?
They may have transmitted the virus to other people
Which type of contraception helps to prevent transmission of HIV?
Barriers - condoms
Which other STIs may patients be screened for at HIV diagnosis?
Hepatitis B and C
Can HIV be spread by casual/household contact?
You can reassure patients of this
Which types of prophylaxis exist for HIV?
In which situations are pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis useful?
Conception when one partner is HIV positive
Prevention of mother-child transmission
If a pregnant woman is HIV positive, alongside pre/post-exposure prophylaxis, which modes of birth are recommended if she has
a) a detectable viral load
b) an undetectable viral load?
a) Caesarean section
b) Vaginal delivery
Can women who are HIV positive breastfeed?
For anti-retroviral therapy to work, what is required?
Compliance from the patient