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What are the goals for requirement analysis ?

1. Ascertain the user's needs
2. Ensure reliability
3. Promote standardization
4. Complete projects on time and within budget


What does building successful user interfaces requires?

- Thoughtful planning
- Sensitivity to user's needs
- Devotion to requirement analysis
- Diligent testing


What are the usability measures?

- Time to learn
- Speed of performance
- Rate of errors by user
- Retention over time
- Subjective satisfaction


Give 5 examples of emanates from designers and managers in various domains:

- Life-critical systems
- Industrial and commercial uses
- Home and entertainment applications
- Exploratory, creative, and collaborative interfaces
- Socio-technical systems (health support, identity verification)


Give examples of life-critical systems?

- Air traffic control
- Nuclear reactors
- Medical instruments


Give examples of industrial and commercial uses?

- Banking systems
- Airline and hotel reservation
- Point of sales terminals


Give examples of office, home and entertainment systems?

- Word processing
- E-mail
- Games


What are the three domain-independent dimensions of user models?

- Canonical vs individual models
- Explicit vs Implicit models
- Long-term vs short-term models


What are the differences between Canonical vs Individual model ?

• Canonical:
- classical
- all purpose
- designed once for all with systems structure

• Individual:
- more flexible
- tailored to specific user
- needs to be built and maintained by user


What are the differences between Explicit vs Implicit model ?

• Explicit:
- allow users to configure system as they wish ie changing background color

• Implicit:
- specified by observing user’s behaviour
- Simple facts ie set a deafult printer is used frequently, or activate task the user was working on last time
- Sophisticated (AI) behaviour, ie if user is doing x, he probably wants y or is a y type of user


What are the differences between Long-term vs Short-term model ?

• Long-term:
- static characteristics of users ie preferences (background color), cognitive factors (level of maths)
- kept for subsequent interactions

• Short-term:
- dynamic characteristics based on interaction ie preferences (current printer), cognitive factors (current goal)
- may be safety deleted at the end of interaction


What are the three types of user classes?

1. Novice
2. Knowledgable intermittent
3. Expert user


What are the assumed characteristics of a novice user?

- Knows little of the task or interface concepts
- Learning-inhibiting anxiety about using computers
- Present significant challenge when designing systems


What are the assumed characteristics of an expert user?

- Familiar with tasks and interface concepts
- Seek to get their work done quickly
- Rapid response time
- Require brief and non-distracting feedback
- Will look for shortcuts, macros, patterns, etc


What are the assumed characteristics of an Knowledgeable Intermittent user?

- Stable task concepts and broad knowledge of interface concepts
- May forget details ie structure of menu, location of menu items


What are the guidelines for novice users?

- Provide clear instructions
- Restrict vocabulary
- Small number of actions -> reduces anxiety, builds confidence, positive reinforcement
- Informative feedback about accomplishments
- Constructive specific error messages
- Carefully designed user documentation


What are the guidelines for expert users?

- Rapid and brief feedback
- Provide abbreviated command sequences accelerators
- Don't waste time for confirmations
- Seek info only when important


What are the guidelines for knowledgable intermittent users?

- Provide well structured menus
- Consistent
- Use prompts
- Make content sensitive
- Well organised manuals