Flashcards in 2. Cognitive Aspects and Their Design Implications Deck (17)
What are the core cognitive processes?
- Perception & recognition
- Reading, speaking, listening
- Problem solving, planning, reasoning, learning, decision making
What does 'attention' involve?
- Process of selecting things to concentrate on
- Involves auditory and/or visual senses
- Allows to focus on relevant info
What are the design implications of 'attention' ?
- Make info salient (animate, color, ordering, spacing)
- Avoid cluttering the interface with what's above
- Plain interface --> easier
- See Google home page
What does 'Perception and Recognition' involve ?
- How info is acquired from environment through our senses and transformed into experiences
- Involves other cognitive processes
What are the design implications of 'Perception and Recognition' ?
- Use design representations that are readily perceivable (legible text, distinguish icons, audible sounds)
- Group info
- See Tables with borders
What does 'memory' involve ?
- Involves encoding and retrieving knowledge
- Filtering process to decide what to further process/memorise
- Context important
- Better at recognising
What are the design implications of 'memory' ?
- Don't overload users with complex procedures
- Design interface that promote recognition rather than recall
- Provide users with a variety of ways of encoding info
What are the three types of memories ?
- Long-term memory
- Short-term memory
- Sensory memory
Explain Long Term Memory?
- Info stored and can be retrieved over long periods of time
- No complete control over what will be stored
- Have to be bought from LTM to STM before use
- Recalling from LTM will slow down activity of user
Types of LTM ?
- Episodic - past oriented, involves recalling
- Semantic - present oriented, facts, rules, GK
- Area where current processing takes place
- Focus on processing of info rather than content
- Hard to solve problems using only STM
Explain Sensory Memory ?
- Area of conscious memory that deals with info from the senses
- Thought to be separate from STM
What are Primacy and Recency Effects ?
- Free recall: recalling lists in any order
- Primary effet: remembering only first couple of words
- Recency effect: remembering only last few words
- Rare words less likely to be remembered than common words
- Words creating strong mental image remembered well
What are the implications of Primacy and Recency Effects on design?
- 7 ± 2 theory : no. of buttons on a menu, etc
What are the problems with the theory in UI design?
- People can scan lists until they see the one they want
- But they don't have to recall them from memory having only briefly seen them
- A small no. of items can be a good design
What colours are the eyes most and least sensitive to ?
From the periphery of vision:
- Most: blue
- Least: red, green and yellow
From the front, the inverse.