2. Cognitive Aspects and Their Design Implications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2. Cognitive Aspects and Their Design Implications Deck (17)
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What are the core cognitive processes?

- Attention
- Memory
- Perception & recognition

- Reading, speaking, listening
- Problem solving, planning, reasoning, learning, decision making


What does 'attention' involve?

- Process of selecting things to concentrate on
- Involves auditory and/or visual senses
- Allows to focus on relevant info


What are the design implications of 'attention' ?

- Make info salient (animate, color, ordering, spacing)
- Avoid cluttering the interface with what's above
- Plain interface --> easier

- See Google home page


What does 'Perception and Recognition' involve ?

- How info is acquired from environment through our senses and transformed into experiences
- Involves other cognitive processes


What are the design implications of 'Perception and Recognition' ?

- Use design representations that are readily perceivable (legible text, distinguish icons, audible sounds)
- Group info

- See Tables with borders


What does 'memory' involve ?

- Involves encoding and retrieving knowledge
- Filtering process to decide what to further process/memorise
- Context important
- Better at recognising


What are the design implications of 'memory' ?

- Don't overload users with complex procedures
- Design interface that promote recognition rather than recall
- Provide users with a variety of ways of encoding info


What are the three types of memories ?

- Long-term memory
- Short-term memory
- Sensory memory


Explain Long Term Memory?

- Info stored and can be retrieved over long periods of time
- Associative
- No complete control over what will be stored
- Have to be bought from LTM to STM before use
- Recalling from LTM will slow down activity of user


Types of LTM ?

- Episodic - past oriented, involves recalling
- Semantic - present oriented, facts, rules, GK


Explain STM?

- Area where current processing takes place
- Focus on processing of info rather than content
- Hard to solve problems using only STM


Explain Sensory Memory ?

- Area of conscious memory that deals with info from the senses
- Thought to be separate from STM


What are Primacy and Recency Effects ?

- Free recall: recalling lists in any order
- Primary effet: remembering only first couple of words
- Recency effect: remembering only last few words
- Rare words less likely to be remembered than common words
- Words creating strong mental image remembered well


What are the implications of Primacy and Recency Effects on design?

- 7 ± 2 theory : no. of buttons on a menu, etc


What are the problems with the theory in UI design?

- People can scan lists until they see the one they want
- But they don't have to recall them from memory having only briefly seen them
- A small no. of items can be a good design


What colours are the eyes most and least sensitive to ?

From the periphery of vision:

- Most: blue

- Least: red, green and yellow

From the front, the inverse.


Implications of color on design?

- Small blue objets tend to disappear
- Red on blue background : bad
- Blue good background colour