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What 2 things, and their interaction, are essential consider in experimental design?

Materials and emotion introduced through the participant.


Briefly describe state emotion.

Temporary emotional arousal.


Briefly describe trait emotion.

Chronic emotional arousal and preoccupation.


Give the key phenomenon and preoccupation in anxiety.

Attentional and panic situations.


Give the key phenomenon and preoccupation in depression.

Memory and failure or times they let others down.


What chases preoccupations?

Emotional disorders increase how much people notice stressful events, their effects, and their frequency of recollection.


According to Beck, what is the key schemata in depression?

Negative views of the self, the world and the future.


According to Beck, what is the key schemata in anxiety?

Exaggerated vulnerability and danger.


Define schemata.

Cognitive structures that influence a person’s perceptions, interpretations and memories.


Briefly describe Bower’s Network Theory.

Each distinct emotion has a specific node in memory joins other aspects of emotion to it by associative pointers.


What do people with anxiety direct processing capacity to which limits capacity for other tasks?

Task irrelevant features.


What do people with depression direct processing capacity to which limits capacity for other tasks?

Sad state.


Give 5 symptoms of clinical depression.

Persistent low mood, poor sleeping patterns, poor eating habits, impaired concentration, and feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness.


What 3 things must be present for a depression diagnosis?

Combinations of features simultaneously, this pattern for at least 2 weeks, and inference with daily activities.


Describe implicit memory.

Spontaneous automatic processing in which some previous experience influenced performance without any conscious recollection of that experience.


Describe explicit memory.

Elaborative processing recurring the conscious recollection of experiences.


What were the results of Lloyd and Lishman’s first session?

Depressed people recalled unpleasantly memories faster, U/P inversely correlated with depression and neuroticism, intense unpleasant memories increased with depression and neuroticism, and recentness was not important.


What were the results of Lloyd and Lishman’s second session?

Only depressions and U/P were significantly related, and change in U/P was not significant but followed the expected trend.


What were the results of Teasdale and Fogarty’s study?

Induced depressed mood resulted in slower recall of positive information and had no effect on negative information.


What were the results of Clark and Teasdale’s study?

More depressed people retrieved happy memories less and sad memories more, this pattern reversed with the same patients at a less depressed time, and frequency of negative experiences had no effect.


What were the results of Denny and Hunt’s study?

Depressed patients recalled significantly less positive adjectives and more negative adjectives on an explicit free recall task, but there was no differences on an implicit fragment completion task.