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Flashcards in 2: Advances on Memory and Depression Deck (24)
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What are two factors that matter in research on memory and mood?

Activation and access of valenced material.


Why does Beck’s theory predict no differences between implicit and explicit recall?

Schemas effect how ALL information is encoded, interpreted, and recalled.


What is the problem with Beck’s theory predicting that depression and anxiety effecting a number of cognitive biases in the same manner?

There is evidence that effect in cognitive biases in these disorders can be selective.


Why might anxiety cause people to favour perceptual processing?

Anxious people are primed to process threatening stimuli in anticipation of danger.


Why might depression cause people to favour conceptual processing?

Depressed people often carry out elaboration on internally generated material relating to failure, loss, and the self.


Briefly describe integration.

An automatic, fast, priming stage involving mutual activation of components of a stimulus which are combined to create a representation, making the stimulus more accessible.


Briefly describe elaboration.

The time consuming formation and activation of relationships between associated representations leading to retrieval and providing complete routes to the access of a representation.


Briefly describe perceptual processing.

Fast, automatic, bottom-up, data-driven processing of physical features of stimuli.


Briefly describe conceptual processing.

Top down, slow, controlled processing of the meaning of stimuli.


Perceptual processing involves (integration/elaboration)



Conceptual processing involves (integration/elaboration).



Why does Williams et al. predict greater implicit memory bias in anxiety?

Implicit memory typically requires more perceptual processing characteristic of anxiety.


Why does Williams et al. predict robust explicit memory bias in depression?

Explicit memory typically requires more conceptual processing characteristic of depression, so implicitly bias rarely shown when perceptual processing is required.


What is a confound in a lot of implicit memory research?

Perceptual processing is often manipulated, but mood-congruent memory is a conceptual process.


Briefly the theory of describe transfer appropriate processing.

Retrieval is maximised when the cognitive processes involved at encoding are also involved at recall.


Give the 4 key findings of Gaddy and Ingram’s 2014 meta analysis.

Implicit bias was enhanced when cognitive processing demands matched, depth of processing had no effect, there was an interaction between mood date and valence of information recalled, and self-relevance was an important moderator for depressed people.


What 2 personal differences were important in Gaddy and Ingram’s 2014 meta analysis?

Age and depression severity - younger and less depressed people showed larger effects.


Define rumination.

Conceptual elaboration of unpleasant thoughts and memories.


What do people typically ruminate about?

The causes and consequences of one’s negative mood.


Briefly describe Joorman et al., 2007’s methodology.

Mood questionnaire, movie clip, movie and mood questionnaire, positive recall or distraction task, mood questionnaire.


Describe the results of the distraction task used by Joorman et al., 2007.

It improved the mood of MDD, remission, and control groups.


Describe the results of the positive memory recall task used by Joorman et al., 2007.

It improved the mood of the control group, had no effect on the remission group, and worsened the mood of the MDD group.


Briefly designs Joorman et al., 2011’s methodology.

Shown valenced stimuli, fixation display, “forward” or “backward” cue, delay, word probe, press “1,” “2,” or “3,” sorting cost calculated.


What were the two key findings of Joorman et al., 2011?

Depressed participants had a significantly higher sorting cost for negative compared to positive and neutral stimuli, and higher rumination scores predicted deficits in sorting scores for negative words.