1: Medical Math: Sources of Drugs (1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1: Medical Math: Sources of Drugs (1) Deck (22):
0

What are the sources of drugs?

Natural
Semisynthetic
Synthetic


1

What is included in the natural sources of drugs?

Minerals
Animal
Plant
Bacteria
Fungi

2

What are the active ingredients in plants as a source of drugs?

Alkaloids
Glycosides
Resins
Gums
Tannins
Fixed oils
Volatile oils

3

Describe Alkaloids

basic nitrogenous substances that are insoluble in water and end in -ine.
their salts are soluble in water.
have a bitter taste.
can be precipitated by acids.

4

What are some examples of Alkaloids?

Atropine
Morphine
Pilocarpine
Physostigmine

5

Describe Glycosides

Sugars combined with other organic structures (aglycone or genin).

6

What are some examples of Glycosides?

Digitalis glycosides (digoxin, digitoxin, ouabain)

7

Describe Resins

Substances formed by polymerization of volatile oils.
are weak and can break easily.

8

Describe Gums

Polysaccharides secreted by certain trees.

9

What are some examples of Gums?

Acacia
Tragacanth

10

Describe Tannins

Non nitrogenous plant constituents that produce astringent effect (precipitate proteins)

11

Describe Fixed Oils

Stable oils and they will not evaporate when exposed to air.

12

What are some examples of Fixed Oils?

Cottonseed oil
castor oil
linseed oil

13

Describe Volatile Oils

Will evaporate readily when exposed to air.

14

What are some examples of Volatile Oils?

Peppermint oil
turpentine oil
Oil of clove

15

What are examples of Animal sources of drugs?

Blood
Plasma
Hormones

16

What are examples of drugs from fungi?

Antibiotics
such as: penicillin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, polymyxins

17

What are examples of drugs from bacteria?

Antibiotics
such as: bacitracin

18

What sources do Semisynthetic drugs come from?

from natural sources and chemically treated.

19

What are some examples of Semisynthetic drugs?

amoxicillin
apomorphine

20

Describe Synthetic drugs

highly purified substances prepared synthetically.

21

What are some examples of Synthetic Drugs?

Sulfonamides (antibacterial)
Furosemide (diuretic)
Butorphanol (opioid analgesic, antitussive)
Aaspirin (NSAID)
Acepromazine (neuroleptic)

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