Flashcards in 1: Physiology: Glycolysis class notes Deck (19)
What is Glycolysis?
glucose is oxidized in the absence of oxygen and subsequently converted into two pyruvate molecules.
Glycolysis occurs in what?
occurs in all cells and all the time. (every cell in the planet)
Glycolysis occurs in what type of cells and what does it generate?
it is the only way that anaerobic cells in animals can generate ATP
What is the end product of glycolysis and what happens to it?
and it is fermented to lactate under anaerobic conditions so that glycolysis can continue
GI tract microbes in animals such as the cow and horse can ferment pyruvate into what?
into molecules other than lactate
these are small chain fatty acids called Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA): acetate, propionate, and butyrate
this fermentation also generates additional ATP in the microbes
Phophofructokinase (PFK) catalyzes what?
catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycolysis
In all cells, PFK activity is inhibited by what?
inhibited by increases cytoplasmic [ATP]
In the liver, PFK activity is potently stimulated by what and potently inhibited by what?
by insulin and potently inhibited by glucagon.
What is oxidation?
taking away a H molecule
What is reduction?
picking up a H+ molecule
Do reduction and oxidation happen at the same time?
whenever you have a reduction there also always an oxidation and vis versa.
In glycolysis you have a net gain of how many ATP?
Glycolysis is the only cycle you can get energy without the use of what?
What type of cells only do glycolysis and why?
red blood cells
they need glucose all the time
have no mitochondria
and do not need high amounts of energy
What happens to pyruvate in an anaerobic cell?
pyruvate can not be oxidized and cant be used so it is fermented into lactate as a waste product and it is sent to the bloodstream
In an aerobic cell, NAD+ will not run out. Why is this?
NADH will get oxidized in the mitochondria to get more ATP, this is known as electron transport
will also get NAD+ when NADH is oxidized in an aerobic cell
NAD+ will eventually run in an anaerobic cell so what will happen?
NADH will lose its electrons to pyruvate to get more NAD+ so that glycolysis can keep going to get more energy.
this will turn pyruvate into lactate as a waste product and it is sent into the bloodstream.
If there is too much lactate in the bloodstream, it indicates what?
too much anaerobic metabolism than normal.