Flashcards in 1: Medical Math: The Dosage Forms of Drugs (2) Deck (34):
Drugs can be classified according to their physical state into:
1: Solid (powder, tablet, pill, bolus, pessary, suppository)
2: Liquid (mixture, tincture, spirit, suspension, elixir, emulsion, extract, infusion, decoction, injection, liniment, lotion)
3: Semisolid (ointment, cream, paste, electuary)
4: Gases or vapors (aerosol, spray, mist)
What is a powder?
a mixture of drugs packaged in packets or sachets
what is a tablet?
is active drug combined with a binder and excipient.
the mixture is compressed into tablets by machine.
What are Enteric-coated tablets?
irritant tablets or which are destroyed by gastric acid are coated with phenylsalicylate (salol) or other substances, which is insoluble in acid but will dissolve in the alkaline small intestine.
what is a pill?
consists of a mixture of drugs and a sticky binder in the form of ovoid or spherical mass, which is provided with a glazed sugar coating.
What is a capsule?
is a container made of a mixture of gelatin and glycerin and is suitable for drugs in powder form and certain liquid drugs.
What is a Bolus?
is large and cylindrical in shape.
It is used for horses and cattle.
What is a Mixture?
in an aqueous solution or suspension intended for oral administration. Aromatic water (aqueous solution of a volatile oil such as peppermint or cinnamon) is added to prevent contamination with bacteria or mold.
What is a Pessary?
is a conical solid preparation for intravaginal use in humans.
What is a Suppository?
is a conical solid preparation given intrarectally for systemic effect in humans.
It melts and releases its active ingredients after being introduced into the body.
what is a Paste?
is a semisolid preparation for either external use (on the skin) or internal use.
What is a Electuary?
is a semisolid preparation, which is applied on the back of the tongue for systemic effect.
What is Tincture?
is an alcoholic liquid preparation of a nonvolatile substance either for eternal or internal use.
what is a Spirit?
is an alcoholic liquid preparation of a volatile substance.
What is a Suspension?
is an aqueous suspension of solids and usually contains a dispersing agent (gum, tragacanth, or methylcellulose) to delay settling. The bottle should contain the phrase "shake well before use".
(does not mix)
What is a Syrup?
is a solution of medicinal agents, flavoring and coloring agents in an 85% sucrose solution (more than 50% sucrose).
What is an Elixir?
is a hydroalcoholic solution of nedicinal agents that have been sweetened and flavored (it has a better keeping quality than mixture because of high alcohol content).
What is an Emulsion?
consists of an oily substance dispersed in an aqueous medium ith an emulsifying or a dispersing agent (gum acacia, lecithin, or methylcellulose).
What is an Extract?
Is obtained by passing the solvent over the dried material (percolation) then evaporation of the solvent, or placing the crude material in the solvent until the active substances are extracted (maceration).
What is Infusion in relation to an extract?
Is called infusion if cold water or warm water is used.
What is Decoction in relation to an extract?
Is called decoction if boiling water is used.
What are injections?
Are sterile solutions or suspensions in an aqueous (sometimes an oil vehicle). They are heat sterilized or if unstable to heat are filtered through Millipore filters. Some drugs are unstable in solution and are packaged aseptically in vials. They are reconstituted with sterile water immediately before use for injection. Tablets for injections are somewhat similar to powder in vials.
Describe Respiratory forms of drugs?
Are slow releasing.
Sustained release forms prolong effective drug concentration in the body by providing for sustained release from the dosage form.
External dosage forms
What is a Liniment?
Is a liquid or semisolid preparation to be applied on the skin with friction (rubbing); this generally contains counterirritants used in chronic inflammation of muscles and tendons.
What is a Lotion?
Is a solution or suspension of soothing substances to be applied on the skin in acute inflammation to relieve pain.
What is an Ointment?
Is a semisolid greasy preparation in which the drug is dissolved or dispensed in a suitable base.
What is a cream?
Incorporates a drug in water-oil emulsion; water will evaporate following applications, leaving the drug and a thin film of oil on the skin.
What is a Dusting Powder?
A mixture of drugs in powder form for external use such as a talc or starch as absorbents.
What is an Aerosol? (gases and vapors)
is a drug incorporated in a suitable solvent and packaged under pressure with a propellant such a fluorinated hydrocarbon or nitrogen.
What are the vehicles for solid forms for drugs? (solvents or carriers)
What are the vehicles for the Oral medications?
Waters (peppermint water)
What are the vehicles for Injections?
Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80)