1. Upper GI Disease Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Gastroenterology > 1. Upper GI Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1. Upper GI Disease Deck (42):
1

Medication used to treat upper GI disease can (3)

Eliminate formed acid/neutralise stomach acid
Reduce acid secretion
Improve mucosal barrier

2

Which medication eliminates formed acid/neutralises stomach acid

Antacids

3

Which medications reduced acid secretion (2)

Hydrogen receptor pump
Proton pump inhibitors

4

How do medications improve mucosal barrier (2)

Eliminate helicobacter
Inhibit prostaglandin removal

5

Drugs that exacerbate upper GI disease (2)

NSAIDs (stop PG production and prevent healing)
Steroids - damage ulcer healing process

6

Mechanism of hydrogen receptor antagonists

Reduce acid production by preventing histamine activation of acid production

7

Limitations of hydrogen receptor antagonists

Alternative pathways still operate (that can be inhibited by ACh and gastrin)

8

Types of hydrogen receptor antagonists (2)

Ranitidine
Cimetidine

9

Types of proton pump inhibitors (3)

Omeprazole
Lansoprazole
Pantoprazole

10

Examples of oral diseases (3)

ROU
Lichen planus
OFG

11

Examples of oesophageal disorders (3)

Dysphagia
Dysmobility disorders
GORD

12

Definition of dysphagia

Food sticking in throat
Mechanical block/compression, may be intermittent

13

Types of dysphagia (3)

Functional
Dysmobility
Due to external compression

14

Causes of GORD (3)

Deective lower oesophageal sphincter
Impaired lower clearing
Impaired gastric emptying

15

GORD may cause (3)

Ulceration
Inflammation
Metaplasia

16

Signs/symptoms of GORD (4)

Epigastric burning - worse when lying down, bending, during pregnancy
Dysphagia - oesophagi's, stricture, dysmobility
GI bleeding
Severe pain (mimics MI) - oesophageal muscle spasm/suspected MI

17

What might Barrett's oesophagus be caused by

Recurrent acid reflux into the lower part of the oesophagus

18

Tissue change of Barrett's oesophagus (2)

Metaplasia of oesophageal lining (metaplastic change to gastric-type mucosa)
Associated with a malignant change (adenocarcinoma)

19

Definition of hiatus hernia

When a part of the stomach pushes above the diaphragm into the thorax

20

Symptoms of hiatus hernia are similar to

GORD symptoms

21

Hiatus hernia is more common in

Women

22

GORD management involves (4)

Smoking cessation (improves sphincter)
Lose weight, avoid triggering activity
Medication
Increase GI motility and gastric emptying

23

Medications involved with GORD management (2)

Antacids
Hydrogen blockers
Proton pump inhibitors

24

Where can PUD appear

On any acid affected site (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum)

25

Causes of PUD (3)

High acid secretion (duodenal)
Normal acid secretion but reduced protective barrier (stomach)
Drugs (NSAIDs, steroids)

26

Excessive acid production can lead to (2)

Oesophageal ulcers
Duodenal ulcers

27

Normal acid levels lead to

Reduced protective barrier

28

PUD due to normal acid levels usually involves

H. pylori

29

H. pylori infection causes (2)

Gastric ulcers
Chronic gastric wall inflammation (stomach lymphoma)

30

H. pylori treatment (2)

Triple therapy
Involves two antibiotics and one PPI

31

Antibiotics used in H. pylori treatment (2)

Amoxicillin (clarithromycin if allergic)
Metronidazole

32

PPI used in H. pylori treatment

Omeprazole

33

Signs and symptoms of PUD (3)

Often asymptomatic/none
Epigastric burning pain
Usually no physical signs

34

Description of PUD related epigastric pain (3)

Worse before/just after meals
Worse at night
Relieved by food, alkali, vomiting

35

When do PUD physical signs occur

When complications occur (bleeding, perforation, etc.)

36

PUD investigations (4)

Endoscopy (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum)
Radiology (barium meal/swallow)
Anaemia tests (FBC, FOB)
H. pylori tests (breath, antibodies, mucosa)

37

Complications of PUD can be (2)

Local
Systemic

38

Local complications of PUD include (4)

Perforation
Haemorrhage
Stricture
Malignancy

39

Systemic complications of PUD include

Anaemia

40

PUD treatment (9)

Smoking cessation
Eat small, regular meals
Eradication therapy
Ulcer healing drugs
Endoscope
Medical intervention
Surgical intervention
Gastrectomy
Vagotomy

41

When does PUD treatment involve medical intervention (2)

When reversible problems are present (lifestyle changes)
When H. pylori is present

42

When does PUD treatment involve surgical intervention

When complications occur