7. GI Infections Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Gastroenterology > 7. GI Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7. GI Infections Deck (26):
1

Causes of GI infections (3)

Bacteria
Viruses
Protozoa

2

Diagnosis of H. pylori-associated GI infections (3)

Endoscopy and biopsy
Breath test
Serology

3

H. pylori treatment (3)

PPIs
Bismuth salts
Antibiotics (combo)

4

Definition of gastroenteritis

Non-specific term for various pathologic states of the GIT

5

Manifestation of gastroenteritis (2)

Diarrhoea (primary)
May be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

6

Symptoms of viral gastroenteritis (6)

Abdominal cramps
Vomiting
Profuse watery stools
Myalgia
Fever
Headaches

7

Symptoms of bacterial dysentery gastroenteritis (5)

Small volume stools
Fever
Tenesmus
Blood mucoid stools
Suprapubic pain

8

Definition of invasive infection

When the organism enters the mucosal cells, destroys them, causing diarrhoea usually with blood in the stool

9

Definition of enterotoxin syndromes

Organisms do not invade the mucosa, but produce enterotoxins which act as chemical mediators causing hypersecretion of fluid
Little tissue damage occurs

10

What is norovirus

Non-enveloped single stranded RNA virus

11

Norovirus transmission

Faecal-oral route

12

Incubation period of norovirus

1-2 days

13

Clinical presentation of norovirus (3)

Abrupt onset of vomiting, watery diarrhoea
Fever (hot/cold)
Abdominal pain

14

Norovirus management (2)

Self-limitng
Correct fluid/electrolyte balance

15

Types of salmonella (3)

Gastroenteritis
Enteric fever (typhoid fever)
Bacteraemia

16

Salmonella incubation period

8-48 hours

17

Symptoms of salmonella (4)

Generally asymptomatic
Cramps
Water/bloody diarrhoea
Fever, sometimes with vomiting

18

Salmonella diagnosis

Stool samples

19

Salmonella treatment

Supportive (IV hydration)

20

C. diff microbiology (2) - type of organism

Gram positive spore forming bacillus
Obligate anaerobe

21

C. diff transmission (2)

Faecal-oral route
Person-to-person contact in hospitals

22

C. diff clinical manifestations

CDI

23

CDI symptoms (5)

Median time between exposure to onset of symptoms is 2-3 days
Watery diarrhoea
Loss of appetitie
Fever
Nausea
Abdominal pain and cramping

24

CDI risk factors (8)

Exposure to antimicrobials/healthcare (past 2-3 months)
Infection with toxigenic strains of C. diff
>64yrs old
Underlying illness
Immunosuppression (HIV)
Chemotherapy
Tube feds and GI surgery
Exposure to gastric acid suppression medications

25

C. diff treatment (5)

Oral rehydration
Antibiotics
Probiotics
Colectomy
Faecal transplants

26

Preventing GI infections (3)

Safe food handling and handwashing
Infection control protocols
Surveillance