How wide is the eye in diameter?
Which eyelid is the most important one clinically?
Lower eyelid has very little function in comparison
Which type of gland is found within the tarsal plates and releases an oily substance which stops the tear film from evaporating?
or Meibomian gland
What muscles open the upper eyelid?
Levator palpebrae superioris
Which type of fibres innervate Mueller's muscle so it can help levator palpebrae superioris with opening the upper eyelid?
Which cranial nerve innervates levator palpebrae superioris?
What is the function of orbicularis oculi?
Which cranial nerve supplies it?
Closes the eyelids
CN VII (remember it's a muscle of facial expression)
Which part of orbicularis oculi is responsible for blinking?
What are the three main symptoms of Horner's syndrome?
Miosis (constricted pupil)
Ptosis (droopy eyelid)
Anhidrosis (lack of sweating)
What lung tumour can cause Horner's syndrome by compressing the superior cervical ganglia?
What is the purpose of the orbital septum?
Prevents transmission of pathogens/debris etc. into bony orbit
What is an infection of the orbit which is sight and life-threatening and must be treated immediately?
What does orbital cellulitis look like?
Puffy inflamed eye
Where in the orbit is the lacrimal gland found?
Where are the Meibomian glands found?
Lacrimal fluid is swept from the ___ to ___ sides of the eye.
temporal to nasal
What is the function of the Meibomian glands?
Add oil to tear film to stop it from evaporating
Through which structures does lacrimal fluid enter the superior and inferior lacrimal papillae?
What carries lacrimal fluid from the lacrimal sac to the nose?
What symptom may be produced by a blind-ended lacrimal sac?
which AREN'T red (no inflammation)
Which type of weather dries out the eyes?
What symptom does this lead to?
Watery eyes - reflex lacrimation overcompensates
Which cranial nerves control the
b) motor parts of reflex lacrimation?
Is this sympathetic or parasympathetic?
a) CN V1
b) CN VII
Why do people with uncontrolled diabetes develop corneal ulcers?
CN V1 doesn't detect dryness
So reflex lacrimation doesn't occur
So cornea dries out and ulcerates
Which enzymes are found in the tear film and give it antibacterial properties?
Which types of conjunctiva line
a) the sclera of the eyes
b) the inner surface of eyelids?
What are the folds which form when these two types make contact?
a) Bulbar conjunctiva
b) Palpebral conjunctiva
The palpebral conjunctiva lines the ___.
The bulbar conjunctiva lines the ___.
Which type of conjunctiva is more vascular?
What can be seen on the palpebral conjunctiva?
conjunctivitis look like?
a) Pus, red eye
b) Watery, pink eye
Viral conjunctivitis commonly accompanies which type of infection?