10: Anatomy - clinical Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology Week 1 2017/18 > 10: Anatomy - clinical > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10: Anatomy - clinical Deck (89)
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1

How wide is the eye in diameter?

2.5 cm

2

Which eyelid is the most important one clinically?

Upper eyelid

Lower eyelid has very little function in comparison

3

Which type of gland is found within the tarsal plates and releases an oily substance which stops the tear film from evaporating?

Tarsal gland

or Meibomian gland

4

What muscles open the upper eyelid?

Levator palpebrae superioris

AND

Mueller's muscle

5

Which type of fibres innervate Mueller's muscle so it can help levator palpebrae superioris with opening the upper eyelid?

Sympathetic 

6

Which cranial nerve innervates levator palpebrae superioris?

CN III

7

What is the function of orbicularis oculi?

Which cranial nerve supplies it?

Closes the eyelids

CN VII (remember it's a muscle of facial expression)

8

Which part of orbicularis oculi is responsible for blinking?

Palpebral part

9

What are the three main symptoms of Horner's syndrome?

Miosis (constricted pupil)

Ptosis (droopy eyelid)

Anhidrosis (lack of sweating)

unilaterally

10

What lung tumour can cause Horner's syndrome by compressing the superior cervical ganglia?

Pancoast tumour

11

What is the purpose of the orbital septum?

Prevents transmission of pathogens/debris etc. into bony orbit

12

What is an infection of the orbit which is sight and life-threatening and must be treated immediately?

Orbital cellulitis

13

What does orbital cellulitis look like?

Puffy inflamed eye

Fever

Rigors

Pupillary disorders

14

Where in the orbit is the lacrimal gland found?

Superolaterally

15

Where are the Meibomian glands found?

Tarsal plates

16

Lacrimal fluid is swept from the ___ to ___ sides of the eye.

temporal to nasal

17

What is the function of the Meibomian glands?

Add oil to tear film to stop it from evaporating

18

Through which structures does lacrimal fluid enter the superior and inferior lacrimal papillae?

Puncta

19

What carries lacrimal fluid from the lacrimal sac to the nose?

Nasolacrimal ducts

20

What symptom may be produced by a blind-ended lacrimal sac?

Watery eyes

which AREN'T red (no inflammation)

21

Which type of weather dries out the eyes?

What symptom does this lead to?

Cold weather

Watery eyes - reflex lacrimation overcompensates

22

Which cranial nerves control the

a) sensory

b) motor parts of reflex lacrimation?

Is this sympathetic or parasympathetic?

a) CN V1

b) CN VII

Parasympathetic

23

Why do people with uncontrolled diabetes develop corneal ulcers?

Neuropathy

CN V1 doesn't detect dryness

So reflex lacrimation doesn't occur

So cornea dries out and ulcerates

24

Which enzymes are found in the tear film and give it antibacterial properties?

Lysozymes

25

Which types of conjunctiva line

a) the sclera of the eyes

b) the inner surface of eyelids?

What are the folds which form when these two types make contact?

a) Bulbar conjunctiva

b) Palpebral conjunctiva

Conjunctival fornix

26

The palpebral conjunctiva lines the ___.

The bulbar conjunctiva lines the ___.

inner eyelid

sclera

27

Which type of conjunctiva is more vascular?

Palpebral conjunctiva

28

What can be seen on the palpebral conjunctiva?

Follicles

Papillae

29

What does

a) bacterial

b) viral

conjunctivitis look like?

a) Pus, red eye

b) Watery, pink eye

30

Viral conjunctivitis commonly accompanies which type of infection?

URTI