Where is CSF produced?
Choroid plexus in brain ventricles
What is the normal volume of CSF?
Which space does the CSF circulate in?
Which circulation does it drain into?
The CSF acts as a ___-absorber.
The CSF supplies the brain with ___ and removes ___.
How can CSF be obtained to diagnose CNS diseases?
Normal CSF is (clear / coloured).
What is the embryological origin of the nervous system?
The ___ ___ secretes CSF and is found in the walls of the ___.
What structure is formed by arteries invaginating the neural tube and is the origin of the choroid plexus?
The choroid plexus is highly ___.
CSF is produced by the choroid plexus and passes into the ___ before passing into the subarachnoid space.
Which ions need to be transported into epithelial cells to trigger CSF release?
Secretion of CSF is dependent on the transport of ___ and ions into epithelial cells.
Sodium is (actively / passively) transported into epithelial cells of the choroid plexus.
Which ventricles of the brain release CSF?
Through which structures does the CSF then pass into the subarachnoid space?
Medial and lateral apertures
Once CSF has passed through the medial and lateral apertures and circulated in the subarachnoid space, where does it drain?
Dural venous sinus
What is the name given to the thick endothelium found in the capillaries of the brain?
Blood brain barrier
Which type of junction prevents molecules e.g toxins from passing through the blood brain barrier?
Why is it difficult to deliver drugs directly to the brain?
Blood brain barrier
Anything causing ___ in the cranial cavity can cause increased intra-___ pressure.
increased intra-cranial pressure
What is hydrocephalus?
Accumulation of CSF in brain (caused by improper secretion or drainage) causing an increase in intracranial pressure
What happens to the ventricles in hydrocephalus?
What symptoms are produced by intracranial hypertension?
Papilloedema (swelling of optic disc causing visual disturbance)
Which nerve, important for vision, is included in the subarachnoid space?
What is papilloedema?
Optic disc swelling due to increased intracranial pressure
What causes of increased intracranial pressure can cause papilloedema?
Swelling (tumours, hypertrophy)
What particular visual disturbances can be caused by papilloedema?
Enlarged blind spot
What fluid does the ciliary body produce?
Where in the eye does aqueous humour circulate?
What is the purpose of aqueous fluid?
Nourishes structures of anterior chamber
Which structure does aqueous humour drain into?
Where exactly is this found?
Scleral venous sinus
What particular layers of the ciliary body produce aqueous humour?
Non-pigmented epithelium (outer)
Which ions are transported into pigmented -> non-pigmented epithelial cells to trigger production of aqueous fluid?
Which enzyme helps Na+ and Cl- transport into ciliary body cells?
Which contransporter is important in the transport of ions into the anterior chamber?
Inhibitors of which enzyme decrease aqueous fluid production?
What are some examples of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?
Overproduction of aqueous fluid causes raised ____ ___, which can cause which disease?
raised intraocular pressure
Which drugs are used to treat glaucoma?
How do they work?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibtors
Reduce secretion of aqueous fluid, reducing intraocular pressure
CSF concentration determines intra-___ pressure.
Aqueous fluid concentration determines intra-___ pressure.
CSF - intra-cranial pressure
Aqueous fluid - intra-ocular pressure