6: Physiology I Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology Week 1 2017/18 > 6: Physiology I > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6: Physiology I Deck (41)
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1

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid plexus in brain ventricles

2

What is the normal volume of CSF?

150 ml

3

Which space does the CSF circulate in?

Which circulation does it drain into?

Subarachnoid space

Venous circulation

4

The CSF acts as a ___-absorber.

shock

5

The CSF supplies the brain with ___ and removes ___.

nutrients

metabolites

6

How can CSF be obtained to diagnose CNS diseases?

Lumbar puncture

7

Normal CSF is (clear / coloured).

coloured

8

What is the embryological origin of the nervous system?

Neural tube

9

The ___ ___ secretes CSF and is found in the walls of the ___.

choroid plexus

ventricles

10

What structure is formed by arteries invaginating the neural tube and is the origin of the choroid plexus?

Choroid fissure

11

The choroid plexus is highly ___.

vascular

12

CSF is produced by the choroid plexus and passes into the ___ before passing into the subarachnoid space.

bloodstream

13

Which ions need to be transported into epithelial cells to trigger CSF release?

Na+

HCO3-

Cl-

14

Secretion of CSF is dependent on the transport of ___ and ions into epithelial cells.

water

15

Sodium is (actively / passively) transported into epithelial cells of the choroid plexus.

actively transported

16

Which ventricles of the brain release CSF?

Through which structures does the CSF then pass into the subarachnoid space?

Lateral ventricles

Third ventricles

Fourth ventricles

Medial and lateral apertures

17

Once CSF has passed through the medial and lateral apertures and circulated in the subarachnoid space, where does it drain?

Dural venous sinus

18

What is the name given to the thick endothelium found in the capillaries of the brain?

Blood brain barrier

19

Which type of junction prevents molecules e.g toxins from passing through the blood brain barrier?

Tight junctions

20

Why is it difficult to deliver drugs directly to the brain?

Blood brain barrier

21

Anything causing ___ in the cranial cavity can cause increased intra-___ pressure.

swelling

increased intra-cranial pressure

22

What is hydrocephalus?

Accumulation of CSF in brain (caused by improper secretion or drainage) causing an increase in intracranial pressure

23

What happens to the ventricles in hydrocephalus?

Hypertrophy

24

What symptoms are produced by intracranial hypertension?

Headache

Papilloedema (swelling of optic disc causing visual disturbance)

25

Which nerve, important for vision, is included in the subarachnoid space?

CN II

26

What is papilloedema?

Optic disc swelling due to increased intracranial pressure

27

What causes of increased intracranial pressure can cause papilloedema?

Hydrocephalus

Swelling (tumours, hypertrophy)

28

What particular visual disturbances can be caused by papilloedema?

Enlarged blind spot

Blurry vision

Visual loss

29

What fluid does the ciliary body produce?

Aqueous humour

30

Where in the eye does aqueous humour circulate?

Anterior chamber