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Flashcards in 10 - Drug-Related Problems Deck (13)
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1

Describe trends in prescription (Rx)
and over the counter (OTC) medication use in the US

 

2000 --> 2012
8% --> 15%
of people taking 5 or more RX drugs
nearly DOUBLED
INCREASING USE OF PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

59% of adults taking Rx drugs // 4.1 RX drugs per person
74.2%
 of Dr. Visits --> drugs
4.02 billion prescriptions written in the U.S. in 2011
$325.7 billion spent on Rx drugs in 2012
VS

81% of adults use OTC meds as first response to minor ailments
338$ / Year is the average US households spend on OTC's
34$ billion in sales 

2

•Define drug-related problems (DRPs)

An event or circumstance involving a patient’s drug treatment that actually, or potentially interferes with the
achievement of an optimal outcome.

3

•List and differentiate types of DRPs

Indication
Unnecessary Drug Therapy
Requires Additional Drug Therapy

Effectiveness
Ineffective drug
Dosage TOO LOW

Safety
ADR + dosage TOO HIGH

Adherence
Non-adherence / Noncompliance

4

•Identify causes and associated costs of drug-related
morbidity and mortality

result from failure of therapeutic agent to produce
the intended therapeutic outcome
(includes treatment failure and production of new medical problems)

Causes  = Inappropriate:
Prescribing / Drug Delivery / Monitoring / Patient Behavior
Patient idiosyncrasy

Costs
1995 --> $76.6 Billion in the amb-setting alone
2000 --> $177 billion in amb care
largest component of DR-Hospitilizations

5

Describe the role of the pharmacist in preventing DRP

Pharmacists are key players in
preventing drug-related morbidity and mortality, improving outcomes, and reducing costs of care.

•The profession of pharmacy must endeavor to help
transform the existing processes into a drug use system to
promote rational drug therapy

 

•Pharmaceutical Care, Medication-Therapy-Management, Patient-Centered-Care, Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process

6

What type of DRP?

•Untreated condition

•Preventative / prophylactic

•Synergistic / potentiating

Requires ADDITIONAL Drug Therapy

INDICATION

7

What type of DRP?

•No medical indication

Duplicate therapy

Non-drug therapy indicated

Treating avoidable ADR

Un-necessary Drug Therapy

INDICATION

8

What type of DRP?

•More effective drug available

•Condition refractory to drug

Dosage form inappropriate

•Not effective for condition

Requires DIFFERENT Drug Product

EFFECTIVENESS

9

What type of DRP?

•Wrong dose

Frequency inappropriate

•Duration inappropriate

•Drug interaction

Dosage TOO LOW

Effectiveness

10

What type of DRP?

•Undesirable effect

•Unsafe drug for patient

Dose changed too quickly

•Allergic reaction

•Contraindications present

ADVERSE DRUG REACTION

SAFETY

11

What type of DRP?

•Wrong dose

•Frequency inappropriate

•Incorrect administration

•Drug interaction

DOSE TOO HIGH

SAFETY

same as DOSE TOO LOW
for  effectiveness

12

What DRP?

•Directions not understood

•Patient prefers not to take

•Patient forgets to take

•Drug product too expensive

Cannot swallow/administer

•Drug product not available

NON-ADHERENCE

Adherence

13

ADEs

Adverse Drug Events
include BOTH
Preventable = medication errors
&
un-avoidable events = ADR