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Flashcards in 1001 - Midterm Deck (147):
1

What is the omnipotent view of management?

Managers are directly responsible for an organization's success or failure

2

What is the symbolic view of management?

View that much of an organization's success or failure is due to external forces outside managers' control

3

__ constraints come from the organization's environment and __ constraints come from the organization's culture

external; internal

4

What is an external environment?

Factors and forces outside the organization that affect its performance

5

What is environmental uncertainty?

The degree of change and complexity in an organization's environment

6

What is environmental complexity?

The number of components in an organization's environment and the extent of the organization's knowledge about those components

7

What are stakeholders?

Any constituencies in the organization's environment that are affected by an organization's decisions and actions

8

What is organizational culture?

The shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act

9

What are strong cultures?

Organizational cultures in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared
- have strong influence on organizational members

10

What are the implications of an organizational culture?

1. Culture is a PERCEPTION
2. Culture is SHARED
3. Culture is a DESCRIPTIVE TERM

11

What are weak cultures?

Organizations that do not make clear what is important or not, and in these organizations culture is unlikely to greatly influence managers

12

What is socialization?

A process that helps employees adapt to the organization's culture
i.e. Starbucks has intensive training for new employees

13

Subcultures are likely to be defined by:

- Department designations
- Geographical separation

14

What are the most common ways that employees "learn" an organization's culture?

- Stories
- Rituals
- Material symbols
- Language

15

What is workplace spirituality?

A culture in which organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work taking place in the context of community

16

Research shows that spiritual organizations tend to have 5 cultural characteristics:

1. Strong sense of purpose
2. Focus on individual development
3. Trust and openness
4. Employee empowerment
5. Toleration of employee expression

17

Creating an ethical culture consists of:

- High in RISK TOLERANCE
- Low to moderate AGGRESSIVENESS
- Focus on MEANS as well as OUTCOMES

18

Creating an innovative culture consists of:

- Challenge and involvement
- Freedom
- Trust and openness
- Idea time

19

What are the 6 characteristics of creating a customer-responsive culture?

1. Outgoing and friendly employees
2. Few rigid rules, procedures and regulations
3. Widespread use of empowerment
4. Good listening skills
5. Role clarity
6. Employees attentive to customer needs

20

How can managers create a culture that supports diversity?

- Showing that they value diversity through their decisions and actions
- Look for ways to reinforce employee behaviors that exemplify inclusiveness

21

What are the components of the external environment?

- Specific environment: external forces that have a direct and immediate impact on the organization
- General environment: broad economic, socio-cultural, political/legal, demographic, technological, and global conditions that may affect the organization
- Global environment: A major factor affecting managers from organizations of all sizes

22

What is the specific environment?

Includes those external forces that have a direct and immediate impact on managers' decisions and actions and are directly relevant to the achievement of the organization's goals

23

What are the main forces which make up the specific environment?

1. Customers
2. Suppliers
3. Competitors
4. Pressure groups

24

What is the general environment?

Includes the broad economic, legal-political, socio-cultural, demographic, and technological conditions that may affect the organization

25

What is degree of change?

How dynamic or stable the external environment is

26

Why is stakeholder relationship management important?

- Can lead to improved organizational performance
- It's the "right" thing to do given the interdependence of the organization and its external stakeholders

27

Discuss the characteristics and importance of organizational culture:

A strong culture supports the goals of the organization making it easier for managers to achieve goals. A weak culture can make things more difficult for managers

28

Describe what kinds of cultures managers can create:

Ethical, innovative, customer-responsive and diversity supportive cultures

29

What is a team structure?

An organizational structure in which the entire organization is made up of work teams

30

What is a matrix structure?

An organizational structure that assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects

31

What is a project structure?

An organizational structure in which employees continuously work on projects

32

What is a boundaryless organization?

An organization whose design is not defined by or limited to, the horizontal, vertical, or external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure

33

What is a virtual organization?

An organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and outside specialists temporarily hired as needed to work on projects

34

What is a network organization?

An organization that uses its own employees to do some work activities and networks of outside suppliers to provide other needed product components or work processes

35

What are the two types of boundaries?

1. Internal - the horizontal ones imposed by work specialization and departmentalization and the vertical ones that separate employees into organizational levels and hierarchies
2. External - the boundaries that separate the organization from its customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders

36

What is a learning organization?

An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change

37

What is a cross-functional team?

A work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties

38

What is a task force (or ad hoc committee)?

A temporary committee or team formed to tackle a specific short-term problem affecting several departments

39

What are communities of practice?

Groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in that area by interacting on an ongoing basis

40

What is open innovation?

Opening up the search for new ideas beyond the organization's boundaries ad allowing innovations to easily transfer inward and outward

41

What are strategic partnerships?

Collaborative relationships between two or more organizations in which they combine their resources and capabilities for some business purpose

42

What is telecommuting?

A work arrangement in which employees work at home and are linked to the workplace by a computer

43

What is a compressed workweek?

A workweek where employees work longer hours per day but fewer days per week

44

What are contingent workers?

Temporary, freelance, or contract workers whose employment is contingent upon demand for their services

45

The transfer and understanding of meaning is __

Communication

46

__ is the communication between two or more people

Interpersonal communication

47

__ are all the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization

Organizational communication

48

What are the functions of communication?

- Control
- Motivation
- Emotional expression
- Information

49

What is known as a channel (interpersonal communication)?

The medium a message travels along i.e. face-to-face, telephone, email, fax, etc.

50

__ is converting a message into symbols and __ is a receiver's translation of a sender's message

Encoding; decoding

51

What is information overload?

When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity

52

What is jargon?

Specialized terminology or technical language that members of a group use to communicate among themselves

53

What is lateral (horizontal) communication?

Communication that takes place among employees on the same organizational level

54

What is downward communication?

Communications that flow from managers to employees to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees

55

What is upward communication?

Communications that flow from employees up to managers to keep them aware of employee needs and how things can be improved to create a climate of trust and respect

56

What is diagonal communication?

Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels

57

What are communication networks?

The variety of patterns of vertical and horizontal flows of organizational communication

58

What are chain networks?

Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward

59

What are wheel networks?

All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group

60

What are all-channel networks?

Communication flows freely among all members of the work team

61

What is The Grapevine?

The informal organizational communication network
-provides channel for issues not suitable for formal communication channels
-the impact of information passed along the grapevine can be countered by open and honest communication with employees

62

What are open workplaces?

Workplaces with few physical barriers and enclosures

63

How does technology affect organizations (good and bad ways)?

Good: significantly improves a manager's ability to monitor individual and team performance, allows employees to have more complete information to make decisions, allowed more collaboration, and greater accessibility to coworkers wherever they are

Bad: privacy issues - forms of communication like email and voicemail are not necessarily private because employers have access to them, also it affects personal interaction

64

What is ethical communication?

Communication that includes all relevant information, is true in every sense, and is not deceptive in any way

65

Define the nature and function of communication:

Control, motivation, emotional expression and information. Communication provides an opportunity to express feelings and also fulfills social needs

66

What are the seven elements in the communication process?

Sender, receiver, the message, encoding, channel, decoding, and feedback

67

What are high-performance work practices?

Work and practices that lead to both high individual and high organizational performance

68

What is a labor union?

An organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their interests through collective bargaining

69

What is affirmative action?

Organizational programs that enhance the status of members of protected groups

70

What is human resource planning?

Ensuring that the organization has the right number and kinds of capable people in the right places and at the right times

71

What is a job analysis?

An assessment that defines jobs and the behaviors necessary to perform them

72

What is recruitment, what is decruitment?

Recruitment - locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants
Decruitment - reducing an organization's workforce

73

What is a realistic job preview (RJP)?

A preview of a job that provides both positive and negative information about the job and the company

74

What is orientation?

Introducing a new employee to his or her job and the organization

75

What is performance management system?

Establishes performance standards that are used to evaluate employee performance

76

What is skill-based pay?

A pay system that rewards employees for the job skills they can demonstrate

77

What is variable pay?

A pay system in which an individual's compensation is contingent on performance

78

What are family-friendly benefits?

Benefits that accommodate employees' needs for work-life balance

79

What is the human resource management process?

Activities necessary for staffing the organization and sustaining high employee performance

80

What are the steps in HR planning?

- Assessing current human resources
- Assessing future needs for human resources and developing a program to meet those future needs

81

What is the selection process?

The process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired

82

What are the selection errors?

- Reject errors for potentially successful applicants
- Accept errors for ultimately poor performers

83

What is validity (of Prediction)?

The proven relationship that exists between the selection device and some relevant job criterion

84

What is reliability (of Prediction)?

The ability of a selection device to measure the same thing consistently

85

What are the types of selection devices?

- Application forms
- Written tests
- Performance simulations
- Interviews
- Background investigations
- Physical examinations

86

Written tests are __ predictors of semi-skilled and unskilled jobs

Moderate

87

What is a boundaryless career?

Individuals, not organizations, define career progression, organizational loyalty, important skills, and marketplace value

88

What is organizational behavior?

The study of the actions of people at work

89

What is employee productivity?

A performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness

90

What is a turnover?

The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal of an organization

91

What is organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)?

Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but which promotes the effective functioning of the organization

92

What is cognitive component?

That part of an attitude that's made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information held by a person

93

What is affective component?

That part of an attitude that's the emotional or feeling part

94

What is behavioral component?

That part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

95

What is job involvement?

The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance to be important to self-worth

96

What is organizational commitment?

The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in that organization

97

What is perceived organizational support?

Employees' general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being

98

What is employee engagement?

When employees are connected to, satisfied with, and enthusiastic about their jobs

99

What is cognitive dissonance?

Any incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes

100

What are attitude surveys?

Surveys that elicit responses from employees through questions about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, or the organization

101

What is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)?

A personality assessment of 100 questions that asks people how they usually act or feel in different situations

102

What is the Big Five Model?

Personality trait model with five basic personality dimensions: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience

103

What is locus of control?

The degree to which people believe they are the masters of their own fate

104

What is Machiavellianism?

A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends justify means

105

What is self-monitoring?

A personality trait that measures the ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors

106

What is a proactive personality?

People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs

107

What is resilience?

An individual's ability to overcome challenges and turn them into opportunities

108

What is emotional intelligence (EI)?

The ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information

109

What is perception?

A process by which we give meaning to our environment by organizing and interpreting sensory impressions

110

What is attribution theory?

A theory used to explain how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior

111

What is fundamental attribution error?

The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviors of others

112

What is self-serving bias?

The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors

113

What is halo effect?

A general impression of an individual based on a single characteristic

114

What is operant conditioning?

A theory of learning that says behavior is a function of its consequences

115

What is social learning theory?

A theory of learning that says people can learn through observation and direct experience

116

What is shaping behavior?

The process of guiding learning in graduated steps using reinforcement or lack of reinforcement

117

__ positively influences productivity, lowers absenteeism levels, lower turnover rates, promotes positive customer satisfaction, moderately promotes OCB, and helps minimize workplace misbehavior

Job satisfaction

118

What is motivation?

The process by which a person's efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal

119

What is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory?

Theory that there is a hierarchy of 5 human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need becomes satisfied, the next need becomes dominant

120

What are physiological needs?

Need for food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical requirements

121

What are safety needs?

A person's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm, as well as assurance that physical needs will continue to be met

122

What are social needs?

Need for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship

123

What are esteem needs?

A person's need for internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention

124

What are self-actualization needs?

Need to grow and become what he/she is capable of becoming

125

Contrast McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y?

Theory X: Assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
Theory Y: Assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction

126

What is Herzberg's Motivation-Hygience Theory (aka: two-factor theory)?

Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction

127

What are hygiene factors, what are motivators?

Hygiene factors: factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction, but don't motivate
Motivators: factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation

128

What is McClelland's Three-Needs Theory?

Three acquired (not innate) needs - achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives in work

129

What is Goal-Setting Theory?

The proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals

130

What are some factors that influence the goal-performance relationship?

- feedback
- goal commitment
- self-efficacy
- national culture

131

What is self-efficacy?

An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task

132

What are reinforcers?

Consequences immediately following a behavior that increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated

133

What is Job Design Theory?

How tasks can be combined to form complete jobs; factors influencing job design:
- changing organizational environment/structure
- organization's technology
- employees' skills, abilities, and preferences

134

What is job scope?

Number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which these tasks are repeated

135

What is job enlargement?

The horizontal expansion of a job through increasing job scope

136

What is job enrichment?

The vertical expansion of a job by adding, planning, and evaluating responsibilities

137

What is the job characteristics model (JCM)?

A framework for designing motivating jobs

138

What is the Equity Theory?

Proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others

139

What is distributive justice?

The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (i.e. who received what?)

140

What is procedural justice?

The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards (i.e. how who received what)

141

What is expectancy theory?

Individuals act based on the expectation that a given outcome will follow and whether that outcome is attractive

142

What is instrumentality?

The perception that a particular level of performance will result in attaining a desired outcome (reward)

143

What is valence?

The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward (outcome) to the individual

144

__ cultures view rewards as "entitlements" to be distributed based on individual needs, not individual performance

Collectivist

145

What are ways to motivate minimum-wage employees?

- employee recognition programs
- provision of sincere praise
- empowering
- guidance
- training

146

What are ways to motivate contingent workers?

- opportunity to become a permanent employee
- opportunity for training
- equity in compensation and benefits

147

What are some current issues in motivation:

- motivating a diverse workforce
- designing effective rewards programs