Flashcards in 1001 - Midterm Deck (147):
What is the omnipotent view of management?
Managers are directly responsible for an organization's success or failure
What is the symbolic view of management?
View that much of an organization's success or failure is due to external forces outside managers' control
__ constraints come from the organization's environment and __ constraints come from the organization's culture
What is an external environment?
Factors and forces outside the organization that affect its performance
What is environmental uncertainty?
The degree of change and complexity in an organization's environment
What is environmental complexity?
The number of components in an organization's environment and the extent of the organization's knowledge about those components
What are stakeholders?
Any constituencies in the organization's environment that are affected by an organization's decisions and actions
What is organizational culture?
The shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act
What are strong cultures?
Organizational cultures in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared
- have strong influence on organizational members
What are the implications of an organizational culture?
1. Culture is a PERCEPTION
2. Culture is SHARED
3. Culture is a DESCRIPTIVE TERM
What are weak cultures?
Organizations that do not make clear what is important or not, and in these organizations culture is unlikely to greatly influence managers
What is socialization?
A process that helps employees adapt to the organization's culture
i.e. Starbucks has intensive training for new employees
Subcultures are likely to be defined by:
- Department designations
- Geographical separation
What are the most common ways that employees "learn" an organization's culture?
- Material symbols
What is workplace spirituality?
A culture in which organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work taking place in the context of community
Research shows that spiritual organizations tend to have 5 cultural characteristics:
1. Strong sense of purpose
2. Focus on individual development
3. Trust and openness
4. Employee empowerment
5. Toleration of employee expression
Creating an ethical culture consists of:
- High in RISK TOLERANCE
- Low to moderate AGGRESSIVENESS
- Focus on MEANS as well as OUTCOMES
Creating an innovative culture consists of:
- Challenge and involvement
- Trust and openness
- Idea time
What are the 6 characteristics of creating a customer-responsive culture?
1. Outgoing and friendly employees
2. Few rigid rules, procedures and regulations
3. Widespread use of empowerment
4. Good listening skills
5. Role clarity
6. Employees attentive to customer needs
How can managers create a culture that supports diversity?
- Showing that they value diversity through their decisions and actions
- Look for ways to reinforce employee behaviors that exemplify inclusiveness
What are the components of the external environment?
- Specific environment: external forces that have a direct and immediate impact on the organization
- General environment: broad economic, socio-cultural, political/legal, demographic, technological, and global conditions that may affect the organization
- Global environment: A major factor affecting managers from organizations of all sizes
What is the specific environment?
Includes those external forces that have a direct and immediate impact on managers' decisions and actions and are directly relevant to the achievement of the organization's goals
What are the main forces which make up the specific environment?
4. Pressure groups
What is the general environment?
Includes the broad economic, legal-political, socio-cultural, demographic, and technological conditions that may affect the organization
What is degree of change?
How dynamic or stable the external environment is
Why is stakeholder relationship management important?
- Can lead to improved organizational performance
- It's the "right" thing to do given the interdependence of the organization and its external stakeholders
Discuss the characteristics and importance of organizational culture:
A strong culture supports the goals of the organization making it easier for managers to achieve goals. A weak culture can make things more difficult for managers
Describe what kinds of cultures managers can create:
Ethical, innovative, customer-responsive and diversity supportive cultures
What is a team structure?
An organizational structure in which the entire organization is made up of work teams
What is a matrix structure?
An organizational structure that assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects
What is a project structure?
An organizational structure in which employees continuously work on projects
What is a boundaryless organization?
An organization whose design is not defined by or limited to, the horizontal, vertical, or external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure
What is a virtual organization?
An organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and outside specialists temporarily hired as needed to work on projects
What is a network organization?
An organization that uses its own employees to do some work activities and networks of outside suppliers to provide other needed product components or work processes
What are the two types of boundaries?
1. Internal - the horizontal ones imposed by work specialization and departmentalization and the vertical ones that separate employees into organizational levels and hierarchies
2. External - the boundaries that separate the organization from its customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders
What is a learning organization?
An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change
What is a cross-functional team?
A work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties
What is a task force (or ad hoc committee)?
A temporary committee or team formed to tackle a specific short-term problem affecting several departments
What are communities of practice?
Groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in that area by interacting on an ongoing basis
What is open innovation?
Opening up the search for new ideas beyond the organization's boundaries ad allowing innovations to easily transfer inward and outward
What are strategic partnerships?
Collaborative relationships between two or more organizations in which they combine their resources and capabilities for some business purpose
What is telecommuting?
A work arrangement in which employees work at home and are linked to the workplace by a computer
What is a compressed workweek?
A workweek where employees work longer hours per day but fewer days per week
What are contingent workers?
Temporary, freelance, or contract workers whose employment is contingent upon demand for their services
The transfer and understanding of meaning is __
__ is the communication between two or more people
__ are all the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization
What are the functions of communication?
- Emotional expression
What is known as a channel (interpersonal communication)?
The medium a message travels along i.e. face-to-face, telephone, email, fax, etc.
__ is converting a message into symbols and __ is a receiver's translation of a sender's message
What is information overload?
When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity
What is jargon?
Specialized terminology or technical language that members of a group use to communicate among themselves
What is lateral (horizontal) communication?
Communication that takes place among employees on the same organizational level
What is downward communication?
Communications that flow from managers to employees to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees
What is upward communication?
Communications that flow from employees up to managers to keep them aware of employee needs and how things can be improved to create a climate of trust and respect
What is diagonal communication?
Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels
What are communication networks?
The variety of patterns of vertical and horizontal flows of organizational communication
What are chain networks?
Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward
What are wheel networks?
All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group
What are all-channel networks?
Communication flows freely among all members of the work team
What is The Grapevine?
The informal organizational communication network
-provides channel for issues not suitable for formal communication channels
-the impact of information passed along the grapevine can be countered by open and honest communication with employees
What are open workplaces?
Workplaces with few physical barriers and enclosures
How does technology affect organizations (good and bad ways)?
Good: significantly improves a manager's ability to monitor individual and team performance, allows employees to have more complete information to make decisions, allowed more collaboration, and greater accessibility to coworkers wherever they are
Bad: privacy issues - forms of communication like email and voicemail are not necessarily private because employers have access to them, also it affects personal interaction
What is ethical communication?
Communication that includes all relevant information, is true in every sense, and is not deceptive in any way
Define the nature and function of communication:
Control, motivation, emotional expression and information. Communication provides an opportunity to express feelings and also fulfills social needs
What are the seven elements in the communication process?
Sender, receiver, the message, encoding, channel, decoding, and feedback
What are high-performance work practices?
Work and practices that lead to both high individual and high organizational performance
What is a labor union?
An organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their interests through collective bargaining
What is affirmative action?
Organizational programs that enhance the status of members of protected groups
What is human resource planning?
Ensuring that the organization has the right number and kinds of capable people in the right places and at the right times
What is a job analysis?
An assessment that defines jobs and the behaviors necessary to perform them
What is recruitment, what is decruitment?
Recruitment - locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants
Decruitment - reducing an organization's workforce
What is a realistic job preview (RJP)?
A preview of a job that provides both positive and negative information about the job and the company
What is orientation?
Introducing a new employee to his or her job and the organization
What is performance management system?
Establishes performance standards that are used to evaluate employee performance
What is skill-based pay?
A pay system that rewards employees for the job skills they can demonstrate
What is variable pay?
A pay system in which an individual's compensation is contingent on performance
What are family-friendly benefits?
Benefits that accommodate employees' needs for work-life balance
What is the human resource management process?
Activities necessary for staffing the organization and sustaining high employee performance
What are the steps in HR planning?
- Assessing current human resources
- Assessing future needs for human resources and developing a program to meet those future needs
What is the selection process?
The process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired
What are the selection errors?
- Reject errors for potentially successful applicants
- Accept errors for ultimately poor performers
What is validity (of Prediction)?
The proven relationship that exists between the selection device and some relevant job criterion
What is reliability (of Prediction)?
The ability of a selection device to measure the same thing consistently
What are the types of selection devices?
- Application forms
- Written tests
- Performance simulations
- Background investigations
- Physical examinations
Written tests are __ predictors of semi-skilled and unskilled jobs
What is a boundaryless career?
Individuals, not organizations, define career progression, organizational loyalty, important skills, and marketplace value
What is organizational behavior?
The study of the actions of people at work
What is employee productivity?
A performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness
What is a turnover?
The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal of an organization
What is organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)?
Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but which promotes the effective functioning of the organization
What is cognitive component?
That part of an attitude that's made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information held by a person
What is affective component?
That part of an attitude that's the emotional or feeling part
What is behavioral component?
That part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
What is job involvement?
The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance to be important to self-worth
What is organizational commitment?
The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in that organization
What is perceived organizational support?
Employees' general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being
What is employee engagement?
When employees are connected to, satisfied with, and enthusiastic about their jobs
What is cognitive dissonance?
Any incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
What are attitude surveys?
Surveys that elicit responses from employees through questions about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, or the organization
What is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)?
A personality assessment of 100 questions that asks people how they usually act or feel in different situations
What is the Big Five Model?
Personality trait model with five basic personality dimensions: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience
What is locus of control?
The degree to which people believe they are the masters of their own fate
What is Machiavellianism?
A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends justify means
What is self-monitoring?
A personality trait that measures the ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors
What is a proactive personality?
People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs
What is resilience?
An individual's ability to overcome challenges and turn them into opportunities
What is emotional intelligence (EI)?
The ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information
What is perception?
A process by which we give meaning to our environment by organizing and interpreting sensory impressions
What is attribution theory?
A theory used to explain how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior
What is fundamental attribution error?
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviors of others
What is self-serving bias?
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
What is halo effect?
A general impression of an individual based on a single characteristic
What is operant conditioning?
A theory of learning that says behavior is a function of its consequences
What is social learning theory?
A theory of learning that says people can learn through observation and direct experience
What is shaping behavior?
The process of guiding learning in graduated steps using reinforcement or lack of reinforcement
__ positively influences productivity, lowers absenteeism levels, lower turnover rates, promotes positive customer satisfaction, moderately promotes OCB, and helps minimize workplace misbehavior
What is motivation?
The process by which a person's efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal
What is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory?
Theory that there is a hierarchy of 5 human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need becomes satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
What are physiological needs?
Need for food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical requirements
What are safety needs?
A person's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm, as well as assurance that physical needs will continue to be met
What are social needs?
Need for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
What are esteem needs?
A person's need for internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention
What are self-actualization needs?
Need to grow and become what he/she is capable of becoming
Contrast McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y?
Theory X: Assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
Theory Y: Assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction
What is Herzberg's Motivation-Hygience Theory (aka: two-factor theory)?
Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction
What are hygiene factors, what are motivators?
Hygiene factors: factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction, but don't motivate
Motivators: factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation
What is McClelland's Three-Needs Theory?
Three acquired (not innate) needs - achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives in work
What is Goal-Setting Theory?
The proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals
What are some factors that influence the goal-performance relationship?
- goal commitment
- national culture
What is self-efficacy?
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
What are reinforcers?
Consequences immediately following a behavior that increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated
What is Job Design Theory?
How tasks can be combined to form complete jobs; factors influencing job design:
- changing organizational environment/structure
- organization's technology
- employees' skills, abilities, and preferences
What is job scope?
Number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which these tasks are repeated
What is job enlargement?
The horizontal expansion of a job through increasing job scope
What is job enrichment?
The vertical expansion of a job by adding, planning, and evaluating responsibilities
What is the job characteristics model (JCM)?
A framework for designing motivating jobs
What is the Equity Theory?
Proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others
What is distributive justice?
The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (i.e. who received what?)
What is procedural justice?
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards (i.e. how who received what)
What is expectancy theory?
Individuals act based on the expectation that a given outcome will follow and whether that outcome is attractive
What is instrumentality?
The perception that a particular level of performance will result in attaining a desired outcome (reward)
What is valence?
The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward (outcome) to the individual
__ cultures view rewards as "entitlements" to be distributed based on individual needs, not individual performance
What are ways to motivate minimum-wage employees?
- employee recognition programs
- provision of sincere praise
What are ways to motivate contingent workers?
- opportunity to become a permanent employee
- opportunity for training
- equity in compensation and benefits