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Flashcards in 1100 Second Part Deck (179):
0

Poignant

1

Fruitless

2

Garble

gar·ble\ˈgär-bəl\
: to cause (a word, name, message, etc.) to be unclear or confusing
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 archaic : cull 1
2 : to sift impurities from
3 a : to so alter or distort as to create a wrong impression or change the meaning
b : to introduce textual error into (a message) by inaccurate encipherment, transmission, or decipherment
Other forms: gar·bled; gar·bling \-b(ə-)liŋ\
gar·bler \-b(ə-)lər\ noun
Origin: Middle English garbelen, from Old Italian garbellare to sift, from Arabic gharbala, from Late Latin cribellare, from cribellum sieve; akin to Latin cernere to sift — more at certain.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: bend, color, cook, distort, falsify, fudge, misinterpret, misrelate, misrepresent, misstate, pervert, slant, twist, warp
2garble
noun
1 : the impurities removed from spices in sifting
2 : an act or an instance of garbling
First use: 1502
Synonyms: bend, color, cook, distort, falsify, fudge, misinterpret, misrelate, misrepresent, misstate, pervert, slant, twist, warp

3

Sanguine

san·guine\ˈsaŋ-gwən\
adjective
: confident and hopeful
Full Definition
1 : bloodred
2 a : consisting of or relating to blood
b : bloodthirsty, sanguinary
c of the complexion : ruddy
3 : having blood as the predominating bodily humor; also : having the bodily conformation and temperament held characteristic of such predominance and marked by sturdiness, high color, and cheerfulness
4 : confident, optimistic
san·guine·ly adverb
san·guine·ness \-gwən-nəs\ noun
san·guin·i·ty \saŋ-ˈgwi-nə-tē, san-\ noun
Origin: Middle English sanguin, from Anglo-French, from Latin sanguineus, from sanguin-, sanguis (see sanguinary )).
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: bloody, bloody-minded, homicidal, murdering, murderous, sanguinary, bloodthirsty, sanguineous
Antonyms: ashen, ashy, doughy, livid, lurid, mealy, pale, paled, palish, pallid, pasty, peaked, peaky, sallow, sallowish, wan
2san·guine\ˈsaŋ-gwən\
noun
: a moderate to strong red
Origin: (see 1sanguine ).
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: bloody, bloody-minded, homicidal, murdering, murderous, sanguinary, bloodthirsty, sanguineous
Antonyms: ashen, ashy, doughy, livid, lurid, mealy, pale, paled, palish, pallid, pasty, peaked, peaky, sallow, sallowish, wan

4

Inundate

in·un·date\ˈi-(ˌ)nən-ˌdāt\
: to cause (someone or something) to receive or take in a large amount of things at the same time
: to cover (something) with a flood of water
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to cover with a flood : overflow
2 : overwhelm
Other forms: in·un·dat·ed; in·un·dat·ing
in·un·da·tion \ˌi-(ˌ)nən-ˈdā-shən\ noun
in·un·da·tor \ˈi-(ˌ)nən-ˌdā-tər\ noun
in·un·da·to·ry \i-ˈnən-də-ˌtȯr-ē\ adjective
Examples
water from the overflowing bathtub inundated the bathroom floor
Origin: Latin inundatus, past participle of inundare, from in- + unda wave — more at water.
First use: 1590
Synonyms: deluge, drown, engulf, gulf, flood, overflow, overwhelm, submerge, submerse, swamp
Antonyms: drain

5

Phlegmatic

phleg·mat·ic\fleg-ˈma-tik\
adjective
: not easily upset, excited, or angered
Full Definition
1 : resembling, consisting of, or producing the humor phlegm(see phlegm )
2 : having or showing a slow and stolid temperament
synonyms see impassive
phleg·mat·i·cal·ly \-ti-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
Examples
a strangely phlegmatic response to what should have been happy news
Origin: (see phlegm ).
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: affectless, apathetic, cold-blooded, emotionless, impassible, numb, passionless, impassive, stoic (or stoical), stolid, undemonstrative, unemotional
Antonyms: demonstrative, emotional, fervent, fervid, hot-blooded, impassioned, passional, passionate, vehement

6

Corroborate

cor·rob·o·rate\kə-ˈrä-bə-ˌrāt\
: to support or help prove (a statement, theory, etc.) by providing information or evidence
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to support with evidence or authority : make more certain
synonyms see confirm
Other forms: cor·rob·o·rat·ed; cor·rob·o·rat·ing
cor·rob·o·ra·tion \-ˌrä-bə-ˈrā-shən\ noun
cor·rob·o·ra·tive \-ˈrä-bə-ˌrā-tiv, -ˈrä-b(ə-)rə-\ adjective
cor·rob·o·ra·tor \-ˈrä-bə-ˌrā-tər\ noun
cor·rob·o·ra·to·ry \-ˈrä-b(ə-)rə-ˌtȯr-ē\ adjective
Examples
the witnesses corroborated the policeman's testimony
my personal experience does not corroborate your faith in the essential goodness of people
Origin: Latin corroboratus, past participle of corroborare, from com- + robor-, robur strength.
First use: 1529
Synonyms: argue, attest, authenticate, bear out, certify, confirm, substantiate, support, validate, verify, vindicate
Antonyms: disprove, rebut, refute

7

Comprehensive

com·pre·hen·sive\ˌkäm-pri-ˈhen(t)-siv, -prē-\
adjective
: including many, most, or all things
: of or relating to a comprehensive school
Full Definition
1 : covering completely or broadly : inclusive
2 : having or exhibiting wide mental grasp
com·pre·hen·sive·ly adverb
com·pre·hen·sive·ness noun
Examples
a comprehensive overview of European history since the French Revolution
a comprehensive listing of all the paintings generally attributed to the Dutch artist Rembrandt
comprehensive plans for covering just about any conceivable terrorist attack
Origin: (see comprehension ).
First use: 1614
Synonyms: all-embracing, all-in [chiefly British], all-inclusive, broad-gauge (or broad-gauged), compendious, complete, encyclopedic, cover-all, cyclopedic, embracive, exhaustive, full, global, inclusive, in-depth, omnibus, panoramic, thorough, universal
Antonyms: imperfect, incomplete, partial

8

Zealous

zeal·ous\ˈze-ləs\
adjective
: feeling or showing strong and energetic support for a person, cause, etc. : filled with zeal
Full Definition
: marked by fervent partisanship for a person, a cause, or an ideal : filled with or characterized by zeal
zeal·ous·ly adverb
zeal·ous·ness noun
First use: 1526

9

Coerce

co·erce\kō-ˈərs\
: to make (someone) do something by using force or threats
: to get (something) by using force or threats
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to restrain or dominate by force
2 : to compel to an act or choice
3 : to achieve by force or threat
synonyms see force
Other forms: co·erced; co·erc·ing
co·erc·ible \-ˈər-sə-bəl\ adjective
Examples
was coerced into signing the document
Origin: Middle English cohercen, from Anglo-French *cohercer Latin coercēre, from co- + arcēre to shut up, enclose — more at ark.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: blackjack, force, compel, constrain, dragoon, drive, impel, impress, make, muscle, obligate, oblige, press, pressure, sandbag

10

Elapse

elapse\i-ˈlaps\
of time : to pass by
Full Definition
intransitive verb
: pass, go by
Other forms: elapsed; elaps·ing
Origin: Latin elapsus, past participle of elabi, from e- + labi to slip — more at sleep.
First use: 1644
Synonyms: break off, break up, close, conclude, dead-end, determine, die, discontinue, cease, end, expire, finish, go, halt, lapse, leave off, let up, pass, quit, stop, terminate, wind up, wink (out)
Antonyms: continue, hang on, persist
2elapse
noun
: passage
First use: circa 1677
Synonyms: break off, break up, close, conclude, dead-end, determine, die, discontinue, cease, end, expire, finish, go, halt, lapse, leave off, let up, pass, quit, stop, terminate, wind up, wink (out)
Antonyms: continue, hang on, persist

11

Meticulous

12

Domicile

do·mi·cile\ˈdä-mə-ˌsī(-ə)l, ˈdō-; ˈdä-mə-sil\
noun
law : the place where you live : your home
Full Definition
1 : a dwelling place : place of residence : home
2 a : a person's fixed, permanent, and principal home for legal purposes
b : residence 2b
Variants: also dom·i·cil \ˈdäm-ə-səl\
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French, from Latin domicilium, from domus.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: abode, diggings, home, dwelling, fireside, habitation, hearth, hearthstone, house, lodging, pad, place, quarters, residence, roof
Synonyms: accommodate, bestow, billet, bivouac, board, bunk, camp, chamber, house, encamp, harbor, lodge, put up, quarter, roof, room, shelter, take in
2domicile
transitive verb
: to establish in or provide with a domicile
Other forms: domiciled; domicil·ing
First use: 1809
Synonyms: abode, diggings, home, dwelling, fireside, habitation, hearth, hearthstone, house, lodging, pad, place, quarters, residence, roof
Synonyms: accommodate, bestow, billet, bivouac, board, bunk, camp, chamber, house, encamp, harbor, lodge, put up, quarter, roof, room, shelter, take in

13

Sporadic

14

Lax

15

Rash

rash\ˈrash\
adverb
archaic
: in a rash manner
Examples
The baby has a skin rash.
The doctor said she developed the rash because of the medicine.
an itchy rash
Origin: Middle English (northern dialect) rasch quickly; akin to Old High German rasc fast.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: cursory, drive-by, flying, gadarene, headlong, helter-skelter, hurried, overhasty, pell-mell, precipitate, precipitous, hasty, rushed
Antonyms: deliberate, unhurried, unrushed
2rash
adjective
: done or made quickly and without thought about what will happen as a result
: doing something quickly and without thinking carefully about what will happen as a result
Full Definition
1 : marked by or proceeding from undue haste or lack of deliberation or caution

2 obsolete : quickly effective
synonyms see adventurous
rash·ly adverb
rash·ness noun
Examples
He later regretted having made such a rash promise.
Their rash actions resulted in a serious accident that could have killed someone.
a rash statement
First use: 1509
Synonyms: cursory, drive-by, flying, gadarene, headlong, helter-skelter, hurried, overhasty, pell-mell, precipitate, precipitous, hasty, rushed
Antonyms: deliberate, unhurried, unrushed
3rash
noun
: a group of red spots on the skin that is caused by an illness or a reaction to something
: a series ofusually unpleasant things or events that happen in a short period of time
Full Definition
1 : an eruption on the body
2 : a large number of instances in a short period

Origin: obsolete French rache scurf, from Old French raiche, from Vulgar Latin *rasica, from *rasicare to scratch, from Latin rasus, past participle of radere.
First use: 1709
Synonyms: cursory, drive-by, flying, gadarene, headlong, helter-skelter, hurried, overhasty, pell-mell, precipitate, precipitous, hasty, rushed

16

Conjecture

con·jec·ture\kən-ˈjek-chər\
noun
: an opinion or idea formed without proof or sufficient evidence
Full Definition
1 obsolete
a : interpretation of omens
b : supposition
2 a : inference from defective or presumptive evidence
b : a conclusion deduced by surmise or guesswork
c : a proposition (as in mathematics) before it has been proved or disproved
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French or Latin; Middle French, from Latin conjectura, from conjectus, past participle of conicere, literally, to throw together, from com- + jacere to throw — more at jet.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: guess, shot, supposition, surmise, shot in the dark
Synonyms: calculate, call, estimate, figure, gauge (also gage), guess, judge, make, place, put, reckon, suppose

17

Lurid

lu·rid\ˈlu̇r-əd\
adjective
: causing shock or disgust : involving sex or violence in a way that is meant to be shocking
: shining or glowing with a bright and unpleasant color
Full Definition
1 a : causing horror or revulsion : gruesome
b : melodramatic, sensational; also : shocking
2 a : wan and ghastly pale in appearance
b : of any of several light or medium grayish colors ranging in hue from yellow to orange
3 : shining with the red glow of fire seen through smoke or cloud
synonyms see ghastly
lu·rid·ly adverb
lu·rid·ness noun
Examples
we quickly drove past the lurid scene of the crash
the doctor was alarmed by the patient's lurid complexion
the lurid news reports about the romance between the two Hollywood stars
Origin: Latin luridus pale yellow, sallow.
First use: 1603
Synonyms: appalling, atrocious, awful, dreadful, frightful, ghastly, grisly, gruesome (also grewsome), hideous, horrendous, horrid, horrific, horrifying, horrible, macabre, monstrous, nightmare, nightmarish, shocking, terrible, terrific
Antonyms: blooming, florid, flush, full-blooded, glowing, red, rosy, rubicund, ruddy, sanguine

18

Quip

quip\ˈkwip\
noun
: a clever remark
Full Definition
1 a : a clever usually taunting remark : gibe
b : a witty or funny observation or response usually made on the spur of the moment
2 : quibble, equivocation
3 : something strange, droll, curious, or eccentric : oddity
quip·py \ˈkwi-pē\ adjective
Examples
witty/amusing quips
They traded quips over a beer.
Origin: earlier quippy, perhaps from Latin quippe indeed, to be sure (often ironic), from quid what — more at quiddity.
First use: 1532
Synonyms: crotchet, curiosity, eccentricity, erraticism, individualism, kink, mannerism, oddity, peculiarity, quiddity, idiosyncrasy, quirk, singularity, tic, trick, twist
Synonyms: banter, chaff, fool, fun, gag, jape, jest, jive, jolly, josh, kid, joke, wisecrack, yuk (or yuck) [slang]
2quip
: to make (a clever remark)
Full Definition
intransitive verb
: to make quips : gibe
transitive verb
: to jest or gibe at
Other forms: quipped; quip·ping
quip·per \ˈkwi-pər\ noun
First use: 1579
Synonyms: crotchet, curiosity, eccentricity, erraticism, individualism, kink, mannerism, oddity, peculiarity, quiddity, idiosyncrasy, quirk, singularity, tic, trick, twist

19

Obviate

ob·vi·ate\ˈäb-vē-ˌāt\
: to make (something) no longer necessary : to prevent or avoid (something)
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to anticipate and prevent (as a situation) or make unnecessary (as an action)
Other forms: ob·vi·at·ed; ob·vi·at·ing
ob·vi·a·tion \ˌäb-vē-ˈā-shən\ noun
Examples
brushing regularly should obviate the need for frequent trips to the dentist
Origin: Late Latin obviatus, past participle of obviare to meet, withstand, from Latin obviam.
First use: 1598
Synonyms: avert, forestall, head off, help, prevent, preclude, stave off

20

Diatribe

di·a·tribe\ˈdī-ə-ˌtrīb\
noun
: an angry and usually long speech or piece of writing that strongly criticizes someone or something
Full Definition
1 archaic : a prolonged discourse
2 : a bitter and abusive speech or piece of writing
3 : ironic or satirical criticism
Examples
he was forced to sit through a long diatribe after he came home late once too often
Origin: Latin diatriba, from Greek diatribē pastime, discourse, from diatribein to spend (time), wear away, from dia- + tribein to rub — more at throw.
First use: 1581
Synonyms: tirade, harangue, jeremiad, philippic, rant

21

Inhibition

in·hi·bi·tion\ˌin-hə-ˈbi-shən, ˌi-nə-\
noun
: a nervous feeling that prevents you from expressing your thoughts, emotions, or desires
: the act of preventing or slowing the activity or occurrence of something
Full Definition
1 a : the act of inhibiting : the state of being inhibited
b : something that forbids, debars, or restricts
2 : an inner impediment to free activity, expression, or functioning: as
a : a mental process imposing restraint upon behavior or another mental process (as a desire)
b : a restraining of the function of a bodily organ or an agent (as an enzyme)
Examples
an innate inhibition made it difficult for him to tell his girlfriend what he was really feeling
without the inhibition of their jackets, the boys were able to wrestle more vigorously
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: continence, discipline, discretion, constraint, refrainment, repression, reserve, restraint, self-command, self-control, self-restraint, suppression
Antonyms: disinhibition, incontinence, unconstraint

22

Fortuitous

for·tu·itous\fȯr-ˈtü-ə-təs, -ˈtyü-, fər-\
adjective
: happening by chance
: having or showing good luck
Full Definition
1 : occurring by chance
2 a : fortunate, lucky
b : coming or happening by a lucky chance
synonyms see accidental
for·tu·itous·ly adverb
for·tu·itous·ness noun
Examples
your arrival just before the thunderstorm was fortuitous
firmly believes that the creation of the universe was something other than just the fortuitous coming together of particles of matter
Origin: Latin fortuitus; akin to Latin fort-, fors chance — more at fortune.
First use: 1653
Synonyms: fluky (also flukey), fortunate, happy, heaven-sent, lucky, providential
Antonyms: hapless, ill-fated, ill-starred, luckless, star-crossed, unfortunate, unhappy, unlucky
Usage: Sense 2a has been influenced in meaning by fortunate. It has been in standard if not elevated use for some 70 years, but is still disdained by some critics. Sense 2b, a blend of 1 and 2a, is virtually unnoticed by the critics. Sense 1 is the only sense commonly used in negative constructions.

23

Incoherent

in·co·her·ent\-ənt\
adjective
: not able to talk or express yourself in a clear way that can be easily understood
: not logical or well-organized : not easy to understand
Full Definition
: lacking coherence: as
a : lacking cohesion : loose
b : lacking orderly continuity, arrangement, or relevance : inconsistent
c : lacking normal clarity or intelligibility in speech or thought
in·co·her·ent·ly adverb
Examples
the thriller's incoherent plot left movie audiences wondering who did what
a driveway covered with incoherent gravel
First use: 1626
Synonyms: choppy, disconnected, disjointed, unconnected
Antonyms: coherent, connected

24

Ilk

ilk\ˈilk\
pronoun
chiefly Scottish
: same — used with that especially in the names of landed families
Origin: Middle English, from Old English ilca, from *i- that, the same (akin to Gothic is he, Latin, he, that) + *lik- form (whence Old English līc body) — more at iterate, like.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: breed, class, description, feather, genre, sort, kidney, kind, like, manner, nature, order, species, strain, stripe, type, variety
2ilk
noun
: sort or kind
Full Definition
: sort, kind
First use: 1790
Synonyms: breed, class, description, feather, genre, sort, kidney, kind, like, manner, nature, order, species, strain, stripe, type, variety
3ilk
pronoun
chiefly Scottish
: each
Origin: Middle English, adjective & pron., from Old English ylc, ǣlc — more at each.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: breed, class, description, feather, genre, sort, kidney, kind, like, manner, nature, order, species, strain, stripe, type, variety

25

Prestigious

pres·ti·gious\pre-ˈsti-jəs, -ˈstē- also prə-\
adjective
1 archaic : of, relating to, or marked by illusion, conjuring, or trickery
2 : having prestige : honored
pres·ti·gious·ly adverb
pres·ti·gious·ness noun
Examples
a nutritional study that has been published by a prestigious medical journal
the most prestigious social club in town
Origin: Latin praestigiosus, from praestigiae.
First use: 1546
Synonyms: esteemed, estimable, name, respectable, recognized, reputable, reputed, respected
Antonyms: disreputable

26

Placard

plac·ard\ˈpla-kərd, -ˌkärd\
noun
: a large notice or sign put up in a public place or carried by people
Full Definition
1 : a notice posted in a public place : poster
2 : a small card or metal plaque
Origin: Middle English placquart formal document, from Middle French placard, from plaquer to make adhere, plate — more at plaque.
First use: 1560
Synonyms: bill, poster
Synonyms: 1post
2plac·ard\-ˌkärd, -kərd\
transitive verb
1 a : to cover with or as if with posters
b : to post in a public place
2 : to announce by or as if by posting
First use: 1813
Synonyms: bill, poster
Synonyms: 1post

27

Integral

28

Remuneration

re·mu·ner·a·tion\ri-ˌmyü-nə-ˈrā-shən\
noun
: an amount of money paid to someone for the work that person has done
Full Definition
1 : something that remunerates : recompense, pay
2 : an act or fact of remunerating
Examples
customers who are tardy in their remuneration will be subject to extra charges
the vandals were ordered to pay the property owners thousands of dollars in remuneration
we can't accept your remuneration for services provided until we officially bill you
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: compensation, disbursement, giving, paying, remitment, remittance, payment
Antonyms: nonpayment

29

Nominal

nom·i·nal\ˈnä-mə-nəl, ˈnäm-nəl\
adjective
: existing as something in name only : not actual or real
: very small in amount
Full Definition
1 : of, relating to, or being a noun or a word or expression taking a noun construction
2 a : of, relating to, or constituting a name
b : bearing the name of a person
3 a : existing or being something in name or form only
b : of, being, or relating to a designated or theoretical size that may vary from the actual : approximate noun
: a word or word group functioning as a noun
Origin: (see 1nominal ).
First use: 1904
Synonyms: formal, paper, titular
Antonyms: big, consequential, considerable, important, material, significant

30

Expunge

ex·punge\ik-ˈspənj\
: to remove (something) completely
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to strike out, obliterate, or mark for deletion
2 : to efface completely : destroy
3 : to eliminate (as a memory) from one's consciousness
Other forms: ex·punged; ex·pung·ing
ex·pung·er noun
Examples
time and the weather have expunged any evidence that a thriving community once existed here
Origin: Latin expungere to mark for deletion by dots, from ex- + pungere to prick — more at pungent.
First use: 1602
Synonyms: abolish, black out, blot out, cancel, clean (up), efface, eradicate, erase, annihilate, exterminate, extirpate, liquidate, obliterate, root (out), rub out, snuff (out), stamp (out), sweep (away), wipe out

31

Flamboyant

32

Anathema

anath·e·ma\ə-ˈna-thə-mə\
noun
: someone or something that is very strongly disliked
Full Definition
1 a : one that is cursed by ecclesiastical authority
b : someone or something intensely disliked or loathed — usually used as a predicate nominative
2 a : a ban or curse solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and accompanied by excommunication
b : the denunciation of something as accursed
c : a vigorous denunciation : curse
Examples
uttered an anathema before driving the would-be robber from the his shop
the use of animals in the testing of cosmetics is anathema to animal-rights activists
Origin: Late Latin anathemat-, anathema, from Greek, thing devoted to evil, curse, from anatithenai to set up, dedicate, from ana- + tithenai to place, set — more at do.
First use: 1526
Synonyms: curse, ban, execration, imprecation, malediction, malison, winze [Scottish]
Antonyms: benediction, benison, blessing

33

Schism

34

Utopia

uto·pia\yu̇-ˈtō-pē-ə\
noun
: an imaginary place in which the government, laws, and social conditions are perfect
Full Definition
1 : an imaginary and indefinitely remote place
2 often capitalized : a place of ideal perfection especially in laws, government, and social conditions
3 : an impractical scheme for social improvement
Examples
dreamed of one day retiring to a tropical utopia
Origin: Utopia, imaginary and ideal country in Utopia (1516) by Sir Thomas More, from Greek ou not, no + topos place.
First use: 1597
Synonyms: Camelot, Cockaigne, Eden, Elysium, empyrean, fantasyland, heaven, lotusland, never-never land, New Jerusalem, nirvana, promised land, Shangri-la, paradise, Zion (also Sion)
Antonyms: anti-utopia, dystopia, hell

35

Timorous

tim·o·rous\ˈti-mə-rəs, ˈtim-rəs\
adjective
: easily frightened
Full Definition
1 : of a timid disposition : fearful
2 : expressing or suggesting timidity
tim·o·rous·ly adverb
tim·o·rous·ness noun
Examples
sensational news stories that seem designed to needlessly alarm an already timorous public
Origin: Middle English, from Medieval Latin timorosus, from Latin timor fear, from timēre to fear.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: fainthearted, fearful, fearsome, mousy (or mousey), scary, skittish, timid, shy, tremulous
Antonyms: adventuresome, adventurous, audacious, bold, daring, dashing, gutsy, hardy, venturesome, venturous

36

Ostentatious

os·ten·ta·tious\ˌäs-tən-ˈtā-shəs\
adjective
: displaying wealth, knowledge, etc., in a way that is meant to attract attention, admiration, or envy
Full Definition
: marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious and sometimes pretentious display
synonyms see showy
os·ten·ta·tious·ly adverb
os·ten·ta·tious·ness noun
Examples
wears an ostentatious diamond ring on his little finger
an ostentatious man who desperately wants to impress people with his newly acquired wealth
Origin: (see ostentation ).
First use: 1673
Synonyms: flamboyant, flaring, flashy, garish, glitzy, loud, noisy, gaudy, razzle-dazzle, splashy, swank (or swanky)
Antonyms: conservative, quiet, understated, unflamboyant, unflashy

37

Truncate

2truncate
transitive verb
: to make (something) shorter
Full Definition
1 : to shorten by or as if by cutting off
2 : to replace (an edge or corner of a crystal) by a plane
Other forms: trun·cat·ed; trun·cat·ing
trun·ca·tion \trəŋ-ˈkā-shən, trən-\ noun
First use: circa 1727
Synonyms: abbreviate, abridge, curtail, cut back, dock, elide, syncopate, shorten
Antonyms: elongate, extend, lengthen, prolong, protract

38

Jaunty

39

Fractious

40

Subjugate

sub·ju·gate\ˈsəb-ji-ˌgāt\
transitive verb
: to defeat and gain control of (someone or something) by the use of force : to conquer and gain the obedience of (a group of people, a country, etc.)
Full Definition
1 : to bring under control and governance as a subject : conquer
2 : to make submissive : subdue
Other forms: sub·ju·gat·ed; sub·ju·gat·ing
sub·ju·ga·tion \ˌsəb-ji-ˈgā-shən\ noun
sub·ju·ga·tor \ˈsəb-ji-ˌgā-tər\ noun
Examples
explorers who subjugated the natives in the name of religion
Origin: Middle English, from Latin subjugatus, past participle of subjugare, from sub- + jugum yoke — more at yoke.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: dominate, overpower, pacify, subdue, subject, conquer, subordinate, vanquish

41

Importune

im·por·tune\ˌim-pər-ˈtün, -ˈtyün; im-ˈpȯr-ˌ, -chən\
adjective
: importunate
im·por·tune·ly adverb
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French & Latin; Anglo-French importun, from Latin importunus, from in- + -portunus (as in opportunus fit) — more at opportune.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: appeal (to), beseech, besiege, conjure, entreat, impetrate, implore, beg, petition, plead (to), pray, solicit, supplicate
2importune
: to ask (someone) for something or to do something in a repeated or annoying way
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to press or urge with troublesome persistence
b archaic : to request or beg for urgently
2 : annoy, trouble
intransitive verb
: to beg, urge, or solicit persistently or troublesomely
synonyms see beg
Other forms: importuned; importun·ing
im·por·tun·er noun
First use: 1530
Synonyms: appeal (to), beseech, besiege, conjure, entreat, impetrate, implore, beg, petition, plead (to), pray, solicit, supplicate

42

Incontrovertible

in·con·tro·vert·ible\(ˌ)in-ˌkän-trə-ˈvər-tə-bəl\
adjective
: not able to be doubted or questioned
Full Definition
: not open to question : indisputable
in·con·tro·vert·ibly \-blē\ adverb
Examples
incontrovertible facts that left the jury with no choice but to convict
First use: 1646
Synonyms: accomplished, certain, inarguable, incontestable, irrefutable, indisputable, indubitable, irrefragable, positive, sure, unanswerable, unarguable, unchallengeable, undeniable, unquestionable
Antonyms: answerable, arguable, contradictable, controvertible, debatable, disputable, doubtable, moot, negotiable, problematic (also problematical), questionable, refutable

43

Surreptitious

44

Haven

45

Ultimate

ul·ti·mate\ˈəl-tə-mət\
adjective
: happening or coming at the end of a process, series of events, etc.
: greatest or most extreme
—used to refer to the original or basic source or cause of something
Full Definition
1 a : most remote in space or time : farthest
b : last in a progression or series : final
c : eventual 2
d : the best or most extreme of its kind : utmost
2 : arrived at as the last result
3 a : basic, fundamental
b : original 1
c : incapable of further analysis, division, or separation
synonyms see last
ul·ti·mate·ness noun
Origin: Medieval Latin ultimatus last, final, from Late Latin, past participle of ultimare to come to an end, be last, from Latin ultimus farthest, last, final, superl. of Latin *ulter situated beyond.
First use: 1640
Synonyms: consummate, last, max, maximum, most, nth, outside, paramount, supreme, top, utmost, uttermost
Antonyms: least, minimal, minimum, slightest
2ultimate
noun
1 : something ultimate; especially : fundamental
2 : acme
3 capitalized : ultimate frisbee
Examples
This car is the ultimate in safety.
They provide their customers with the ultimate in service.
First use: 1681
Synonyms: consummate, last, max, maximum, most, nth, outside, paramount, supreme, top, utmost, uttermost
Antonyms: least, minimal, minimum, slightest
3ul·ti·mate\-mət, -ˌmāt\
verb
: end
Other forms: ul·ti·mat·ed; ul·ti·mat·ing
First use: circa 1834
Synonyms: consummate, last, max, maximum, most, nth, outside, paramount, supreme, top, utmost, uttermost

46

Eventuate

even·tu·ate\i-ˈven-chə-ˌwāt\
intransitive verb
: to come out finally : result, come about
Other forms: even·tu·at·ed; even·tu·at·ing
First use: 1789

47

Emit

emit\ē-ˈmit\
: to send (light, energy, etc.) out from a source
: to make (a certain sound)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to throw or give off or out (as light or heat)
b : to send out : eject
2 a : to issue with authority; especially : to put (as money) into circulation
b obsolete : publish
3 : to give utterance or voice to
Other forms: emit·ted; emit·ting
emit·ter noun
Examples
The telescope can detect light emitted by distant galaxies.
chimneys emitting thick, black smoke
The flowers of this plant emit a powerful odor.
Origin: Latin emittere to send out, from e- + mittere to send.
First use: 1598
Synonyms: cast, discharge, emanate, evolve, exhale, expel, expire [archaic], give out, irradiate, issue, radiate, release, send (out), shoot, throw out, vent

48

Subterranean

49

Viable

50

Incredulous

in·cred·u·lous\(ˌ)in-ˈkre-jə-ləs, -dyə-ləs\
adjective
: not able or willing to believe something : feeling or showing a lack of belief
Full Definition
1 : unwilling to admit or accept what is offered as true : not credulous : skeptical
2 : incredible 1
3 : expressing incredulity
in·cred·u·lous·ly adverb
Examples
incredulous by nature, I'm of course very suspicious of anyone who claims to be able to communicate with the dead
an incredulous account of alien abduction that the tabloids had a field day with
Origin: Latin incredulus, from in- + credulus credulous.
First use: 1579
Synonyms: disbelieving, distrustful, doubting, skeptical, mistrustful, negativistic, questioning, show-me, suspecting, suspicious, unbelieving
Antonyms: credulous, gullible (also gullable), trustful, trusting, uncritical, unquestioning
Usage: Sense 2 was revived in the 20th century after a couple of centuries of disuse. Although it is a sense with good literary precedent—among others Shakespeare used it—many people think it is a result of confusion with incredible, which is still the usual word in this sense.

51

Permeate

52

Propitious

pro·pi·tious\prə-ˈpi-shəs\
adjective
: likely to have or produce good results
Full Definition
1 : favorably disposed : benevolent
2 : being a good omen : auspicious
3 : tending to favor : advantageous
synonyms see favorable
pro·pi·tious·ly adverb
pro·pi·tious·ness noun
Examples
the success of the first big movie in May was a propitious start for the summer season of blockbusters
a propitious time for starting a business
Origin: Middle English propycyous, from Anglo-French propicius, from Latin propitius, probably from pro- for + petere to seek — more at pro-, feather.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: auspicious, bright, encouraging, fair, golden, heartening, likely, optimistic, promising, hopeful, roseate, rose-colored, rosy, upbeat
Antonyms: bleak, dark, depressing, desperate, discouraging, disheartening, dismal, downbeat, dreary, gloomy, hopeless, inauspicious, pessimistic, unencouraging, unlikely, unpromising, unpropitious

53

Premise

prem·ise
noun
: a building and the area of land that it is on
: a statement or idea that is accepted as being true and that is used as the basis of an argument
Full Definition
1 a : a proposition antecedently supposed or proved as a basis of argument or inference; specifically : either of the first two propositions of a syllogism from which the conclusion is drawn
b : something assumed or taken for granted : presupposition
2 plural : matters previously stated; specifically : the preliminary and explanatory part of a deed or of a bill in equity
3 plural [from its being identified in the premises of the deed]
a : a tract of land with the buildings thereon
b : a building or part of a building usually with its appurtenances (as grounds)
Variants: also pre·miss \ˈpre-məs\
Origin: in sense 1, from Middle English premisse, from Anglo-French, from Medieval Latin praemissa, from Latin, feminine of praemissus, past participle of praemittere to place ahead, from prae- pre- + mittere to send; in other senses, from Middle English premisses, from Medieval Latin praemissa, from Latin, neuter plural of praemissus.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: given, hypothetical, if, postulate, assumption (also premiss), presumption, presupposition, supposition
Synonyms: hypothecate, hypothesize, postulate, assume, presume, presuppose, say, suppose
2pre·mise\ˈpre-məs also pri-ˈmīz\
transitive verb
1 a : to set forth beforehand as an introduction or a postulate
b : to offer as a premise in an argument
2 : postulate
3 : to base on certain assumptions
Other forms: pre·mised; pre·mis·ing
Origin: (see 1premise ).
First use: 1526
Synonyms: given, hypothetical, if, postulate, assumption (also premiss), presumption, presupposition, supposition

54

Jeopardize

jeop·ar·dize\ˈje-pər-ˌdīz\
: to put (something or someone) in danger
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to expose to danger or risk : imperil
Other forms: jeop·ar·dized; jeop·ar·diz·ing
Examples
don't do anything that will jeopardize your place on the advisory board
First use: 1582
Synonyms: adventure, compromise, gamble (with), hazard, imperil, jeopard, endanger, menace, peril, risk, venture

55

Curtail

cur·tail\(ˌ)kər-ˈtāl\
: to reduce or limit (something)
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to make less by or as if by cutting off or away some part
synonyms see shorten
cur·tail·er \-ˈtā-lər\ noun
Examples
curtailed the school day because of the stormy weather
Origin: by folk etymology from earlier curtal to dock an animal's tail, from curtal, noun, animal with a docked tail, from Middle French courtault — more at curtal.
First use: 1580
Synonyms: abbreviate, abridge, shorten, cut back, dock, elide, syncopate, truncate
Antonyms: elongate, extend, lengthen, prolong, protract

56

Repress

re·press\ri-ˈpres\
: to not allow yourself to do or express (something)
: to not allow yourself to remember (something, such as an unpleasant event)
: to control (someone or something) by force
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to check by or as if by pressure : curb
b : to put down by force : subdue
2 a : to hold in by self-control
b : to prevent the natural or normal expression, activity, or development of
3 : to exclude from consciousness
4 : to inactivate (a gene or formation of a gene product) by allosteric combination at a DNA binding siteintransitive verb
: to take repressive action
re·press·ibil·i·ty \-ˌpre-sə-ˈbi-lə-tē\ noun
re·press·ible \-ˈpre-sə-bəl\ adjective
re·pres·sive \-ˈpre-siv\ adjective
re·pres·sive·ly adverb
re·pres·sive·ness noun
Examples
quickly repressed the rebellion in the provincial city and restored order
you can't repress your feelings forever, so tell her how you feel about her
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French represser, from Latin repressus, past participle of reprimere to check, from re- + premere to press — more at press.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: clamp down (on), crack down (on), crush, put down, quash, quell, silence, slap down, snuff (out), squash, squelch, subdue, suppress

57

Surmise

sur·mise\sər-ˈmīz, ˈsər-ˌ\
noun
: a thought or idea based on scanty evidence : conjecture
Origin: Middle English, allegation, charge, from Anglo-French, from feminine of surmis, past participle of surmettre to place on, suppose, accuse, from Medieval Latin supermittere, from Late Latin, to place on, from Latin super- + mittere to let go, send.
First use: 1569
Synonyms: guess, shot, supposition, conjecture
Synonyms: assume, conjecture, daresay, imagine, presume, speculate, suppose, guess, suspect, suspicion [chiefly dialect]
2sur·mise\sər-ˈmīz\
transitive verb
: to form an opinion about something without definitely knowing the truth
Full Definition
: to form a notion of from scanty evidence : imagine, infer
Other forms: sur·mised; sur·mis·ing
Origin: Middle English, to allege, from surmise, noun.
First use: 1700
Synonyms: guess, shot, supposition, conjecture
Synonyms: assume, conjecture, daresay, imagine, presume, speculate, suppose, guess, suspect, suspicion [chiefly dialect]

58

Cryptic

59

Inchoate

in·cho·ate\in-ˈkō-ət, ˈin-kə-ˌwāt\
adjective
: not completely formed or developed yet
Full Definition
: being only partly in existence or operation : incipient; especially : imperfectly formed or formulated : formless, incoherent
in·cho·ate·ly adverb
in·cho·ate·ness noun
Examples
inchoate feelings of affection for a man whom she had, up till now, thought of as only a friend
Origin: Latin inchoatus, past participle of inchoare to start work on, perhaps from in- + cohum part of a yoke to which the beam of a plow is fitted.
First use: 1534
Synonyms: aborning, budding, inceptive, nascent, incipient
Antonyms: adult, full-blown, full-fledged, mature, ripe, ripened

60

Overt

overt\ō-ˈvərt, ˈō-(ˌ)vərt\
adjective
: easily seen : not secret or hidden
Full Definition
: open to view : manifest
overt·ly adverb
overt·ness noun
Examples
overt hostility
an overtly religious reference
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French, from past participle of ovrir to open, from Vulgar Latin *operire, alteration of Latin aperire.
First use: 14th century

61

Relegate

rel·e·gate\ˈre-lə-ˌgāt\
: to put (someone or something) in a lower or less important position, rank, etc.
: to give (something, such as a job or responsibility) toanother person or group
: to move (a sports team) to a lower position in a league
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to send into exile : banish
2 : assign: as
a : to assign to a place of insignificance or of oblivion : put out of sight or mind
b : to assign to an appropriate place or situation on the basis of classification or appraisal
c : to submit to someone or something for appropriate action : delegate
d : to transfer (a sports team) to a lower ranking division
synonyms see commit
Other forms: rel·e·gat·ed; rel·e·gat·ing
rel·e·ga·tion \ˌre-lə-ˈgā-shən\ noun
Examples
courtiers and generals who incurred the emperor's disfavor were soon relegated to the farther reaches of the empire
some psychologists argue that the syndrome should be relegated to a different class of autism
Origin: Latin relegatus, past participle of relegare, from re- + legare to send with a commission — more at legate.
First use: 1599
Synonyms: deport, displace, exile, expatriate, banish, transport

62

Inveigh

in·veigh\in-ˈvā\
intransitive verb
: to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently : rail
in·veigh·er noun
Examples
always inveighing against the high property taxes that they were forced to pay
Origin: Latin invehi to attack, inveigh, passive of invehere to carry in, from in- + vehere to carry — more at way.
First use: 1529
Synonyms: beef, bellyache, bitch, bleat, carp, caterwaul, crab, croak, fuss, gripe, grizzle, grouch, grouse, growl, grumble, grump, holler, complain, keen, kick, kvetch, maunder [chiefly British], moan, murmur, mutter, nag, repine, scream, squawk, squeal, wail, whimper, whine, whinge [British], yammer, yawp (or yaup), yowl
Antonyms: crow, delight, rejoice

63

Nettle

net·tle\ˈne-təl\
noun
: a tall plant that has leaves with hairs that sting you if you touch them
Full Definition
1 : any of a genus (Urtica of the family Urticaceae, the nettle family) of chiefly coarse herbs armed with stinging hairs
2 : any of various prickly or stinging plants other than the true nettles (genus Urtica)
Origin: Middle English, from Old English netel; akin to Old High German nazza nettle, Greek adikē.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: aggravate, annoy, bother, bug, burn (up), chafe, eat, exasperate, frost, gall, get, grate, gripe, hack (off), irk, itch, nark [British], irritate, peeve, persecute, pique, put out, rasp, rile, ruffle, spite, vex
2nettle
: to make (someone) angry
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to strike or sting with or as if with nettles
2 : to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger
synonyms see irritate
Other forms: net·tled; net·tling \ˈnet-liŋ, ˈne-təl-iŋ\
Examples
He decided to grasp the nettle and try to solve the problem himself.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: aggravate, annoy, bother, bug, burn (up), chafe, eat, exasperate, frost, gall, get, grate, gripe, hack (off), irk, itch, nark [British], irritate, peeve, persecute, pique, put out, rasp, rile, ruffle, spite, vex

64

Aspire

as·pire\ə-ˈspī(-ə)r\
: to want to have or achieve something (such as a particular career or level of success)
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 : to seek to attain or accomplish a particular goal
2 : ascend, soar
Other forms: as·pired; as·pir·ing
as·pir·er noun
Examples
aspire to great deeds, and you have a better chance of doing good deeds
a tower aspiring towards the heavens
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French or Latin; Middle French aspirer, from Latin aspirare, literally, to breathe upon, from ad- + spirare to breathe.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: aim, allow [chiefly Southern&Midland], intend, calculate, contemplate, design, go [chiefly Southern&Midland], look, mean, meditate, plan, propose, purport, purpose
Antonyms: decline, descend, dip, drop, fall (off), plunge

65

Havoc

hav·oc\ˈha-vək, -vik\
noun
: a situation in which there is much destruction or confusion
Full Definition
1 : wide and general destruction : devastation
2 : great confusion and disorder
Origin: Middle English havok, from Anglo-French, modification of Old French havot plunder.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: chance-medley, confusion, disarrangement, disarray, dishevelment, disorder, disorderedness, disorderliness, disorganization, free-for-all, chaos, heck, hell, jumble, mare's nest, mess, messiness, misorder, muddle, muss, shambles, snake pit, tumble, welter
Antonyms: order, orderliness
2havoc
transitive verb
: to lay waste : destroy
Other forms: hav·ocked; hav·ock·ing
First use: 1577
Synonyms: chance-medley, confusion, disarrangement, disarray, dishevelment, disorder, disorderedness, disorderliness, disorganization, free-for-all, chaos, heck, hell, jumble, mare's nest, mess, messiness, misorder, muddle, muss, shambles, snake pit, tumble, welter
Antonyms: order, orderliness

66

Repulse

re·pulse\ri-ˈpəls\
: to force (someone) to stop attacking you
: to cause dislike or disgust in (someone)
: to reject (someone or something) in a rude or unfriendly way
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to drive or beat back : repel
2 : to repel by discourtesy, coldness, or denial
3 : to cause repulsion in
Other forms: re·pulsed; re·puls·ing
Origin: Latin repulsus, past participle of repellere to repel.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: brush-off, rebuff, cold shoulder, silent treatment, snub
Antonyms: open arms
Synonyms: gross out, nauseate, put off, repel, disgust, revolt, sicken, turn off
2repulse
noun
1 : rebuff, rejection
2 : the action of repelling an attacker : the fact of being repelled
First use: 1533
Synonyms: brush-off, rebuff, cold shoulder, silent treatment, snub
Antonyms: open arms
Synonyms: gross out, nauseate, put off, repel, disgust, revolt, sicken, turn off

67

Raze

raze\ˈrāz\
: to destroy (something, such as a building) completely
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a archaic : erase
b : to scrape, cut, or shave off
2 : to destroy to the ground : demolish
Other forms: razed; raz·ing
raz·er noun
Examples
The old factory was razed to make room for a parking lot.
an entire city block razed by a terrible fire
Origin: alteration of rase.
First use: 1536
Synonyms: annihilate, cream, decimate, demolish, desolate, devastate, do in, extinguish, nuke, pull down, pulverize, destroy, rub out, ruin, shatter, smash, tear down, total, vaporize, waste, wrack, wreck
Antonyms: build, construct, erect, put up, raise, rear, set up

68

Supine

su·pine\ˈsü-ˌpīn\
noun
1 : a Latin verbal noun having an accusative of purpose in -um and an ablative of specification in -u
2 : an English infinitive with to
Origin: Middle English supyn, from Late Latin supinum, from Latin, neuter of supinus, adjective.
First use: 15th century
2su·pine\su̇-ˈpīn, attributive also ˈsü-ˌpīn\
adjective
: lying on your back with your face upward
: willing to be controlled by others : weak or passive
Full Definition
1 a : lying on the back or with the face upward
b : marked by supination
2 : exhibiting indolent or apathetic inertia or passivity; especially : mentally or morally slack
3 archaic : leaning or sloping backward
synonyms see prone, inactive
su·pine·ly \su̇-ˈpīn-lē\ adverb
su·pine·ness \-ˈpīn-nəs\ noun
Origin: Middle English suppyne, from Latin supinus; akin to Latin sub under, up to — more at up.

69

Mammoth

mam·moth\ˈma-məth\
noun
: a type of large, hairy elephant that lived in ancient times and that had very long tusks that curved upward
: something that is very large
Full Definition
1 : any of a genus (Mammuthus) of extinct Pleistocene mammals of the elephant family distinguished from recent elephants by highly ridged molars, usually large size, very long tusks that curve upward, and well-developed body hair
2 : something immense of its kind

Origin: Russian mamont, mamot.
First use: 1706
Synonyms: astronomical (also astronomic), Brobdingnagian, bumper, colossal, cosmic (also cosmical), cyclopean, elephantine, enormous, galactic, gargantuan, giant, gigantesque, gigantic, grand, herculean, heroic (also heroical), Himalayan, humongous (also humungous), immense, jumbo, king-size (or king-sized), leviathan, huge, massive, mega, mighty, monster, monstrous, monumental, mountainous, oceanic, pharaonic, planetary, prodigious, super, super-duper, supersize, supersized, titanic, tremendous, vast, vasty, walloping, whacking, whopping
Antonyms: bantam, bitty, diminutive, infinitesimal, Lilliputian, little bitty, micro, microminiature, microscopic (also microscopical), midget, miniature, minuscule, minute, pocket, pygmy, teensy, teensy-weensy, teeny, teeny-weeny, tiny, wee
Synonyms: behemoth, blockbuster, colossus, dinosaur, dreadnought, elephant, Goliath, jumbo, leviathan, giant, mastodon, monster, titan, whale, whopper
Antonyms: diminutive, dwarf, half-pint, midget, mite, peewee, pygmy (also pigmy), runt, shrimp
2mammoth
adjective
: very large
Full Definition
: of very great size
synonyms see enormous
Examples
a mammoth building
Renovating the house is a mammoth undertaking.
First use: 1802

70

Incisive

in·ci·sive\in-ˈsī-siv\
adjective
: very clear and direct : able to explain difficult ideas clearly and confidently
Full Definition
: impressively direct and decisive (as in manner or presentation)
in·ci·sive·ly adverb
in·ci·sive·ness noun
First use: circa 1834

71

Stereotype

ste·reo·type\ˈster-ē-ə-ˌtīp, ˈstir-\
transitive verb
: to believe unfairly that all people or things with a particular characteristic are the same
Full Definition
1 : to make a stereotype from
2 a : to repeat without variation : make hackneyed
b : to develop a mental stereotype about
ste·reo·typ·er noun
First use: 1804
Synonyms: concept, conception, generality, notion, generalization
Synonyms: overexpose, overuse, hackney, vulgarize
2stereotype
noun
: an often unfair and untrue belief that many people have about all people or things with a particular characteristic
Full Definition
1 : a plate cast from a printing surface
2 : something conforming to a fixed or general pattern; especially : a standardized mental picture that is held in common by members of a group and that represents an oversimplified opinion, prejudiced attitude, or uncritical judgment
ste·reo·typ·i·cal \ˌster-ē-ə-ˈti-pi-kəl\ also ste·reo·typ·ic \-pik\ adjective
ste·reo·typ·i·cal·ly \-pi-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
Examples
It's not fair to stereotype a whole group of people based on one person you don't like.
a stereotyped representation/approach/character
stereotyped roles
Origin: French stéréotype, from stéré- stere- + type.
First use: 1817
Synonyms: concept, conception, generality, notion, generalization
Synonyms: overexpose, overuse, hackney, vulgarize

72

Precipitate

pre·cip·i·tate\pri-ˈsi-pə-ˌtāt\
: to cause (something) to happen quickly or suddenly
: to become separated from a liquid especially by a chemical process
: to cause (something solid) to become separated from a liquid especially by a chemical process
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to throw violently : hurl
b : to throw down
2 : to bring about especially abruptly
3 a : to cause to separate from solution or suspension
b : to cause (vapor) to condense and fall or depositintransitive verb
1 a : to fall headlong
b : to fall or come suddenly into some condition
2 : to move or act with violent or unwise speed
3 a : to separate from solution or suspension
b : to condense from a vapor and fall as rain or snow
Other forms: pre·cip·i·tat·ed; pre·cip·i·tat·ing
pre·cip·i·ta·tive \-ˌtā-tiv\ adjective
pre·cip·i·ta·tor \-ˌtā-tər\ noun
Origin: Latin praecipitatus, past participle of praecipitare, from praecipit-, praeceps (see precipice ).
First use: 1528
Synonyms: cursory, drive-by, flying, gadarene, headlong, helter-skelter, hurried, overhasty, pell-mell, hasty, precipitous, rash, rushed
Antonyms: deliberate, unhurried, unrushed
Synonyms: aftereffect, aftermath, backwash, child, conclusion, consequence, corollary, development, fate, fruit, issue, outcome, outgrowth, effect, product, result, resultant, sequel, sequence, upshot
Antonyms: antecedent, causation, cause, occasion, reason
Synonyms: pour, rain, storm
2pre·cip·i·tate\pri-ˈsi-pə-tət, -ˌtāt\
noun
: a solid substance that is separated from a liquid especially by a chemical process
Full Definition
1 : a substance separated from a solution or suspension by chemical or physical change usually as an insoluble amorphous or crystalline solid
2 : a product, result, or outcome of some process or action
Origin: New Latin praecipitatum, from Latin, neuter of praecipitatus (see 1precipitate ).
First use: 1594
Synonyms: cursory, drive-by, flying, gadarene, headlong, helter-skelter, hurried, overhasty, pell-mell, hasty, precipitous, rash, rushed
Antonyms: deliberate, unhurried, unrushed
Synonyms: aftereffect, aftermath, backwash, child, conclusion, consequence, corollary, development, fate, fruit, issue, outcome, outgrowth, effect, product, result, resultant, sequel, sequence, upshot
Antonyms: antecedent, causation, cause, occasion, reason
Synonyms: pour, rain, storm
3pre·cip·i·tate\pri-ˈsi-pə-tət\
adjective
: happening very quickly or too quickly without enough thought or planning
Full Definition
1 a : falling, flowing, or rushing with steep descent
b : precipitous, steep
2 : exhibiting violent or unwise speed
pre·cip·i·tate·ly adverb
pre·cip·i·tate·ness noun
Origin: (see 2precipitate ).
First use: 1615
Synonyms: cursory, drive-by, flying, gadarene, headlong, helter-skelter, hurried, overhasty, pell-mell, hasty, precipitous, rash, rushed
Antonyms: deliberate, unhurried, unrushed
Synonyms: aftereffect, aftermath, backwash, child, conclusion, consequence, corollary, development, fate, fruit, issue, outcome, outgrowth, effect, product, result, resultant, sequel, sequence, upshot

73

Scurry

scur·ry\ˈskər-ē, ˈskə-rē\
intransitive verb
: to move quickly and with short steps
Full Definition
1 : to move in or as if in a brisk pace : scamper
2 : to move around in an agitated, confused, or fluttering manner
Other forms: scur·ried; scur·ry·ing
scurry noun
Examples
everyone scurried back to work as soon as they saw the boss's car pull into the parking lot
Origin: short for hurry-scurry, reduplication of hurry.
First use: 1810
Synonyms: barrel, belt, blast, blaze, blow, bolt, bomb [slang], bowl, breeze, bundle, bustle, buzz, cannonball, careen, career, chase, course, crack (on), dash, drive, fly, hare, hasten, hie, highball, hotfoot (it), hump, hurl, hurtle, hustle, jet, jump, motor, nip, pelt, race, ram, rip, rocket, run, rush, rustle, scoot, hurry, scuttle, shoot, speed, step, tear, travel, trot, whirl, whisk, zip, zoom
Antonyms: crawl, creep, poke

74

Lethal

75

Bias

bi·as\ˈbī-əs\
noun
: a tendency to believe that some people, ideas, etc., are better than others that usually results in treating some people unfairly
: a strong interest in something or ability to do something
Full Definition
1 : a line diagonal to the grain of a fabric; especially : a line at a 45 degree angle to the selvage often utilized in the cutting of garments for smoother fit
2 a : a peculiarity in the shape of a bowl that causes it to swerve when rolled on the green in lawn bowling
b : the tendency of a bowl to swerve; also : the impulse causing this tendency
c : the swerve of the bowl
3 a : bent, tendency
b : an inclination of temperament or outlook; especially : a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment : prejudice
c : an instance of such prejudice
d (1) : deviation of the expected value of a statistical estimate from the quantity it estimates (2) : systematic error introduced into sampling or testing by selecting or encouraging one outcome or answer over others
4 a : a voltage applied to a device (as a transistor control electrode) to establish a reference level for operation
b : a high-frequency voltage combined with an audio signal to reduce distortion in tape recording
synonyms see predilection
on the bias : askew, obliquely
Origin: Middle French biais.
First use: 1530
Synonyms: athwart, crosswise, cornerways, cornerwise, crossways, diagonally, kitty-corner (also catty-corner or catercorner or kitty-cornered or catty-cornered or catercornered), obliquely, transversely
Synonyms: favor, nonobjectivity, one-sidedness, partiality, parti pris, partisanship, ply, prejudice, tendentiousness
Antonyms: impartiality, neutrality, objectivity, open-mindedness, unbiasedness
Synonyms: prejudice, poison, turn

2bi·as\ˈbī-əs\
adjective
: diagonal, slanting — used chiefly of fabrics and their cut
bi·as·ness noun
Examples
I don't want to bias you against the movie, but I thought the book was much better.
The circumstances could bias the results of the survey.
Origin: (see 1bias ).
First use: 1551
Synonyms: athwart, crosswise, cornerways, cornerwise, crossways, diagonally, kitty-corner (also catty-corner or catercorner or kitty-cornered or catty-cornered or catercornered), obliquely, transversely
Synonyms: favor, nonobjectivity, one-sidedness, partiality, parti pris, partisanship, ply, prejudice, tendentiousness
Antonyms: impartiality, neutrality, objectivity, open-mindedness, unbiasedness
Synonyms: prejudice, poison, turn

3bi·as\ˈbī-əs\
adverb
1 : diagonally
2 obsolete : awry
Origin: (see 1bias ).
First use: 1575
Synonyms: athwart, crosswise, cornerways, cornerwise, crossways, diagonally, kitty-corner (also catty-corner or catercorner or kitty-cornered or catty-cornered or catercornered), obliquely, transversely
Synonyms: favor, nonobjectivity, one-sidedness, partiality, parti pris, partisanship, ply, prejudice, tendentiousness
Antonyms: impartiality, neutrality, objectivity, open-mindedness, unbiasedness
Synonyms: prejudice, poison, turn

4bi·as\ˈbī-əs\
: to have a strong and often unfair influence on (someone or something)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to give a settled and often prejudiced outlook to
2 : to apply a slight negative or positive voltage to (as a transistor)
synonyms see incline
Other forms: bi·ased or bi·assed; bi·as·ing or bi·as·sing
Origin: (see 1bias ).
First use: circa 1628
Synonyms: athwart, crosswise, cornerways, cornerwise, crossways, diagonally, kitty-corner (also catty-corner or catercorner or kitty-cornered or catty-cornered or catercornered), obliquely, transversely
Synonyms: favor, nonobjectivity, one-sidedness, partiality, parti pris, partisanship, ply, prejudice, tendentiousness
Antonyms: impartiality, neutrality, objectivity, open-mindedness, unbiasedness
Synonyms: prejudice, poison, turn

76

Valor

val·or\ˈva-lər\
noun
: courage or bravery
Full Definition
: strength of mind or spirit that enables a person to encounter danger with firmness : personal bravery
Examples
the absence of indecision even in the face of death is the true mark of valor
Origin: Middle English valour worth, worthiness, bravery, from Anglo-French, from Medieval Latin valor, from Latin valēre to be of worth, be strong — more at wield.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: bottle [British slang], bravery, courageousness, daring, daringness, dauntlessness, doughtiness, fearlessness, gallantry, greatheartedness, guts, gutsiness, hardihood, heart, heroism, intestinal fortitude, intrepidity, intrepidness, moxie, nerve, pecker [chiefly British], prowess, stoutness, courage, virtue
Antonyms: cowardice, cowardliness, cravenness, dastardliness, poltroonery, spinelessness

77

Singular

sin·gu·lar\ˈsiŋ-gyə-lər\
adjective
grammar : showing or indicating no more than one thing
: better or greater than what is usual or normal
: strange or odd
Full Definition
1 a : of or relating to a separate person or thing : individual
b : of, relating to, or being a word form denoting one person, thing, or instance

c : of or relating to a single instance or to something considered by itself
2 : distinguished by superiority : exceptional
3 : being out of the ordinary : unusual
4 : departing from general usage or expectation : peculiar, odd
5 a of a matrix : having a determinant equal to zero
b of a linear transformation : having the property that the matrix of coefficients of the new variables has a determinant equal to zero
synonyms see strange
sin·gu·lar·ly adverb
Origin: Middle English singuler, from Anglo-French, from Latin singularis, from singulus only one — more at single.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: aberrant, aberrated, abnormal, anomalous, atypical, especial, exceeding, extraordinaire, extraordinary, freak, odd, peculiar, phenomenal, preternatural, rare, exceptional, uncommon, uncustomary, unique, unusual, unwonted
Antonyms: common, customary, normal, ordinary, typical, unexceptional, unextraordinary, usual
2singular
noun
1 : the singular number, the inflectional form denoting it, or a word in that form
2 : a singular term
Examples
“Wolf” is the singular and “wolves” is the plural.
“Mouse” is the singular of “mice.”
The verb should be in the singular.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: aberrant, aberrated, abnormal, anomalous, atypical, especial, exceeding, extraordinaire, extraordinary, freak, odd, peculiar, phenomenal, preternatural, rare, exceptional, uncommon, uncustomary, unique, unusual, unwonted

78

Sinecure

si·ne·cure\ˈsī-ni-ˌkyu̇r, ˈsi-\
noun
: a job or position in which someone is paid to do little or no work
Full Definition
1 archaic : an ecclesiastical benefice without cure of souls
2 : an office or position that requires little or no work and that usually provides an income
Origin: Medieval Latin sine cura without cure (of souls).
First use: 1662

79

Stentorian

sten·to·ri·an\sten-ˈtȯr-ē-ən\
adjective
: very loud
Full Definition
: extremely loud
synonyms see loud
Examples
the professor's stentorian voice was enough to keep even the drowsiest student awake
First use: 1605
Synonyms: blaring, blasting, booming, clamorous, clangorous, deafening, earsplitting, piercing, plangent, resounding, ringing, roaring, slam-bang, sonorous, loud, thundering, thunderous
Antonyms: gentle, low, soft

80

Complicity

com·plic·i·ty\kəm-ˈpli-s(ə-)tē\
noun
: the act of helping to commit a crime or do wrong in some way
Full Definition
1 : association or participation in or as if in a wrongful act
2 : an instance of complicity
Other forms: plural com·plic·i·ties
Examples
the two major auction houses acting in complicity to drive up the prices of art works
First use: circa 1656
Synonyms: collusion, connivance, conspiracy

81

Liquidate

liq·ui·date\ˈli-kwə-ˌdāt\
business : to sell (a business, property, etc.) especially to pay off debt
: to pay all the money owed for (a debt)
: to destroy (something) or kill (someone)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a (1) : to determine by agreement or by litigation the precise amount of (indebtedness, damages, or accounts) (2) : to determine the liabilities and apportion assets toward discharging the indebtedness of
b : to settle (a debt) by payment or other settlement
2 archaic : to make clear
3 : to do away with
4 : to convert (assets) into cashintransitive verb
1 : to liquidate debts, damages, or accounts
2 : to determine liabilities and apportion assets toward discharging indebtedness
Other forms: liq·ui·dat·ed; liq·ui·dat·ing
liq·ui·da·tion \ˌli-kwə-ˈdā-shən\ noun
Examples
a decisive act that liquidated all doubts and fears about his governing abilities
his first act as absolute ruler was to liquidate his opponents
used our lottery winnings to liquidate our debts
Origin: Late Latin liquidatus, past participle of liquidare to melt, from Latin liquidus.
First use: circa 1575
Synonyms: abolish, black out, blot out, cancel, clean (up), efface, eradicate, erase, expunge, exterminate, extirpate, annihilate, obliterate, root (out), rub out, snuff (out), stamp (out), sweep (away), wipe out
Antonyms: repudiate

82

Recant

re·cant\ri-ˈkant\
: to publicly say that you no longer have an opinion or belief that you once had
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to withdraw or repudiate (a statement or belief) formally and publicly : renounce
2 : revoke
intransitive verb
: to make an open confession of error
synonyms see abjure
re·can·ta·tion \ˌrē-ˌkan-ˈtā-shən\ noun
Examples
the Inquisition forced Galileo to recant his support of the Copernican observation that the earth revolves around the sun
Origin: Latin recantare, from re- + cantare to sing — more at chant.
First use: 1535
Synonyms: abnegate, forswear (also foreswear), abjure, renege, renounce, repeal, repudiate, retract, take back, unsay, withdraw
Antonyms: adhere (to)

83

Accomplice

ac·com·plice\ə-ˈkäm-pləs, -ˈkəm-\
noun
: a person who works with or helps someone who is doing something wrong or illegal
Full Definition
: one associated with another especially in wrongdoing
Examples
the thief and his accomplices were eventually caught and brought to justice
Origin: alteration (from incorrect division of a complice) of complice.
First use: 1584
Synonyms: abettor (also abetter), accessory (also accessary), cohort, confederate

84

Culpable

cul·pa·ble\ˈkəl-pə-bəl\
adjective
: deserving blame : guilty of doing something wrong
Full Definition
1 archaic : guilty, criminal
2 : meriting condemnation or blame especially as wrong or harmful
synonyms see blameworthy
cul·pa·bil·i·ty \ˌkəl-pə-ˈbi-lə-tē\ noun
cul·pa·ble·ness \ˈkəl-pə-bəl-nəs\ noun
cul·pa·bly \-blē\ adverb
Examples
are you any less culpable for murder if you acted in the heat of passion?
Origin: Middle English coupable, from Anglo-French cupable, culpable, from Latin culpabilis, from culpare to blame, from culpa guilt.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: blamable, censurable, blameworthy, reprehensible, reproachable
Antonyms: blameless, faultless, impeccable, irreproachable

85

Alleged

al·leged\ə-ˈlejd, -ˈle-jəd\
adjective
: accused of having done something wrong or illegal but not yet proven guilty
: said to have happened but not yet proven
Full Definition
1 : asserted to be true or to exist
2 : questionably true or of a specified kind : supposed, so-called
3 : accused but not proven or convicted
al·leg·ed·ly \-ˈle-jəd-lē\ adverb
First use: 15th century

86

Access

87

Invalidate

in·val·i·date\(ˌ)in-ˈva-lə-ˌdāt\
: to weaken or destroy the effect of (something)
: to show or prove (something) to be false or incorrect
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to make invalid; especially : to weaken or destroy the cogency of
synonyms see nullify
in·val·i·da·tion \-ˌva-lə-ˈdā-shən\ noun
in·val·i·da·tor \in-ˈva-lə-ˌdā-tər\ noun
Examples
those nations eventually invalidated their trade agreement
First use: 1649
Synonyms: abate, abrogate, annul, avoid, cancel, disannul, dissolve, abolish, negate, null, nullify, quash, repeal, rescind, roll back, strike down, vacate, void

88

Abrogate

ab·ro·gate\ˈa-brə-ˌgāt\
: to end or cancel (something) in a formal and official way
: to fail to do what is required by (something, such as a responsibility)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to abolish by authoritative action : annul
2 : to treat as nonexistent
synonyms see nullify
Other forms: ab·ro·gat·ed; ab·ro·gat·ing
ab·ro·ga·tion \ˌa-brə-ˈgā-shən\ noun
Examples
the U.S. Congress can abrogate old treaties that are unfair to Native Americans
Origin: Latin abrogatus, past participle of abrogare, from ab- + rogare to ask, propose a law — more at right.
First use: 1526
Synonyms: abate, abolish, annul, avoid, cancel, disannul, dissolve, invalidate, negate, null, nullify, quash, repeal, rescind, roll back, strike down, vacate, void

89

Preclude

pre·clude\pri-ˈklüd\
: to make (something) impossible : to prevent (something) from happening
: to prevent (someone) from doing something
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 archaic : close
2 : to make impossible by necessary consequence : rule out in advance
Other forms: pre·clud·ed; pre·clud·ing
pre·clu·sion \-ˈklü-zhən\ noun
pre·clu·sive \-ˈklü-siv, -ziv\ adjective
pre·clu·sive·ly adverb
Examples
issued a strict schedule for doing household chores so as to preclude any arguments
Origin: Latin praecludere, from prae- + claudere to close — more at close.
First use: 1629
Synonyms: avert, forestall, head off, help, obviate, prevent, stave off

90

Persevere

per·se·vere\ˌpər-sə-ˈvir\
: to continue doing something or trying to do something even though it is difficult
Full Definition
intransitive verb
: to persist in a state, enterprise, or undertaking in spite of counterinfluences, opposition, or discouragement
Other forms: per·se·vered; per·se·ver·ing
per·se·ver·ing·ly adverb
Examples
although he was frustrated by the lack of financial resources and support, he persevered in his scientific research
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French parseverer, from Latin perseverare, from per- through + severus severe.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: carry on, persist, gut it out, hang in there

91

Landmark

land·mark\-ˌmärk\
noun
: an object or structure on land that is easy to see and recognize
: a building or place that was important in history
: a very important event or achievement
Full Definition
1 : an object (as a stone or tree) that marks the boundary of land
2 a : a conspicuous object on land that marks a locality
b : an anatomical structure used as a point of orientation in locating other structures
3 : an event or development that marks a turning point or a stage
4 : a structure (as a building) of unusual historical and usually aesthetic interest; especially : one that is officially designated and set aside for preservation
Examples
typically, people feel that turning 21 is a landmark in one's life
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: climacteric, climax, corner, turning point, milepost, milestone, watershed

92

Extrinsic

ex·trin·sic\ek-ˈstrin-zik, -ˈstrin(t)-sik\
adjective
: not part of something : coming from the outside of something
Full Definition
1 a : not forming part of or belonging to a thing : extraneous
b : originating from or on the outside; especially : originating outside a part and acting upon the part as a whole
2 : external
ex·trin·si·cal·ly \-zi-k(ə-)lē, -si-\ adverb
Examples
the fact that the ring belonged to your grandmother is extrinsic to its value to a jeweler
Origin: French & Late Latin; French extrinsèque, from Late Latin extrinsecus, from Latin, adverb, from without; akin to Latin exter outward and to Latin sequi to follow — more at exterior, sue.
First use: 1613
Synonyms: accidental, adventitious, alien, extraneous, external, foreign, supervenient
Antonyms: inherent, innate, intrinsic

93

Declaim

de·claim\di-ˈklām, dē-\
: to say (something) in usually a loud and formal way
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 : to speak rhetorically; specifically : to recite something as an exercise in elocution
2 : to speak pompously or bombastically : harangue
transitive verb
: to deliver rhetorically ; specifically : to recite in elocution
de·claim·er noun
dec·la·ma·tion \ˌde-klə-ˈmā-shən\ noun
Examples
over the last two centuries some of the most illustrious personages of their times have declaimed in the town's historic lyceum
he declaimed at some length about the nation's obligation to spread democratic values around the world
Origin: Middle English declamen, from Latin declamare, from de- + clamare to cry out; akin to Latin calare to call — more at low.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: talk, descant, discourse, expatiate, harangue, lecture, orate, speak

94

Fetter

fet·ter\ˈfe-tər\
noun
1 : a chain or shackle for the feet
2 : something that confines : restraint
Origin: Middle English feter, from Old English; akin to Old English fōt foot.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: check, circumscription, condition, constraint, curb, restriction, limitation, restraint, stricture
Synonyms: chain, enchain, enfetter, bind, gyve, handcuff, manacle, pinion, shackle, trammel
Antonyms: unbind, unfetter, unshackle

2fetter
: to prevent (someone or something) from moving or acting freely
: to put chains around someone's feet to prevent motion
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to put fetters on : shackle
2 : to restrain from motion, action, or progress
synonyms see hamper
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: check, circumscription, condition, constraint, curb, restriction, limitation, restraint, stricture
Synonyms: chain, enchain, enfetter, bind, gyve, handcuff, manacle, pinion, shackle, trammel
Antonyms: unbind, unfetter, unshackle

95

Epithet

ep·i·thet\ˈe-pə-ˌthet also -thət\
noun
: a word or phrase that describes a person or thing
: an offensive word or name that is used as a way of abusing or insulting someone
Full Definition
1 a : a characterizing word or phrase accompanying or occurring in place of the name of a person or thing
b : a disparaging or abusive word or phrase
c : the part of a taxonomic name identifying a subordinate unit within a genus
2 obsolete : expression
ep·i·thet·ic \ˌe-pə-ˈthe-tik\ or ep·i·thet·i·cal \-ti-kəl\ adjective
Examples
King Richard I of England was given the very laudatory epithet “the Lion-Hearted”
the school has a strict ban against the use of racial, ethnic, religious, and sexual epithets
Origin: Latin epitheton, from Greek, from neuter of epithetos added, from epitithenai to put on, add, from epi- + tithenai to put — more at do.
First use: 1579
Synonyms: alias, byname, cognomen, nickname, handle, moniker (also monicker), sobriquet (also soubriquet), surname

96

Paragon

par·a·gon\ˈper-ə-ˌgän, -gən, ˈpa-rə-\
noun
: a person or thing that is perfect or excellent in some way and should be considered a model or example to be copied
Full Definition
: a model of excellence or perfection
Origin: Middle French, from Old Italian paragone, literally, touchstone, from paragonare to test on a touchstone, from Greek parakonan to sharpen, from para- + akonē whetstone, from akē point; akin to Greek akmē point — more at edge.
First use: circa 1548
Synonyms: beau ideal, classic, eidolon, exemplar, idea, model, nonesuch, nonpareil, ideal, patron saint
2paragon
transitive verb
1 : to compare with : parallel
2 : to put in rivalry : match
3 obsolete : surpass
First use: circa 1586
Synonyms: beau ideal, classic, eidolon, exemplar, idea, model, nonesuch, nonpareil, ideal, patron saint

97

Nomadic

98

Controversial

99

Asperity

as·per·i·ty\a-ˈsper-ə-tē, ə-, -ˈspe-rə-\
noun
: harshness of behavior or speech that expresses bitterness or anger
Full Definition
1 : rigor, severity
2 a : roughness of surface : unevenness; also : a tiny projection from a surface
b : roughness of sound
3 : roughness of manner or of temper : harshness
Other forms: plural as·per·i·ties
Examples
doesn't like the asperity of most experimental music
she responded with such asperity that we knew she was deeply offended by the question
as a physically challenged person, he has encountered more than his share of asperities on the road to success
Origin: Middle English asprete, from Anglo-French aspreté, from aspre rough, from Latin asper, from Old Latin *absperos, from ab- ab- + -speros; akin to Sanskrit apasphura repelling, Latin spernere to spurn — more at spurn.
First use: 13th century
Synonyms: acerbity, acidity, acidness, acridity, acridness, acrimoniousness, acrimony, acuteness, edge, bite, bitterness, harshness, keenness, poignance, poignancy, pungency, roughness, sharpness, tartness
Antonyms: mildness, softness

100

Gregarious

gre·gar·i·ous\gri-ˈger-ē-əs\
adjective
: enjoying the company of other people
biology : tending to live in groups
Full Definition
1 a : tending to associate with others of one's kind : social
b : marked by or indicating a liking for companionship : sociable
c : of or relating to a social group
2 a of a plant : growing in a cluster or a colony
b : living in contiguous nests but not forming a true colony — used especially of wasps and bees
gre·gar·i·ous·ly adverb
gre·gar·i·ous·ness noun
Examples
a gregarious child who ran up to every person on the playground and wanted to be their friend
walruses are highly gregarious
Origin: Latin gregarius of a flock or herd, from greg-, grex flock, herd.
First use: 1668
Synonyms: boon, clubbable (also clubable), clubby, companionable, extroverted (also extraverted), convivial, outgoing, sociable, social
Antonyms: antisocial, insociable, introverted, nongregarious, reclusive, unsociable, unsocial

101

Indigenous

in·dig·e·nous\in-ˈdi-jə-nəs\
adjective
: produced, living, or existing naturally in a particular region or environment
Full Definition
1 : produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment
2 : innate, inborn
synonyms see native
in·dig·e·nous·ly adverb
in·dig·e·nous·ness noun
Examples
the culture of the indigenous people of that country
the drive to create that is indigenous to humanity
Origin: Late Latin indigenus, from Latin indigena, noun, native, from Old Latin indu, endo in, within + Latin gignere to beget — more at end-, kin.
First use: 1646
Synonyms: aboriginal, autochthonous, born, domestic, endemic, native
Antonyms: nonindigenous, nonnative

102

Interloper

in·ter·lop·er\ˌin-tər-ˈlō-pər, ˈin-tər-ˌ\
noun
: a person who is not wanted or welcome by the other people in a situation or place
Full Definition
: one that interlopes: as
a : an illegal or unlicensed trader
b : one that intrudes in a place or sphere of activity
Examples
summer residents were regarded as interlopers who had no deep commitment to the town's welfare
First use: circa 1590
Synonyms: buttinsky (also buttinski), interferer, busybody, intermeddler, intruder, kibitzer (also kibbitzer), meddler, nosey parker [chiefly British]

103

Habitat

hab·i·tat\ˈha-bə-ˌtat\
noun
: the place or type of place where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives or grows
Full Definition
1 a : the place or environment where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives and grows
b : the typical place of residence of a person or a group
c : a housing for a controlled physical environment in which people can live under surrounding inhospitable conditions (as under the sea)
2 : the place where something is commonly found
Examples
a forest in California is set aside to preserve the unique brushy, rugged habitat required by nesting California condors
Origin: Latin, it inhabits, from habitare.
First use: 1796
Synonyms: home, niche, range, territory

104

Cursory

105

Sedentary

106

Antithesis

an·tith·e·sis\an-ˈti-thə-səs\
noun
: the exact opposite of something or someone
: the state of two things that are directly opposite to each other
Full Definition
1 a (1) : the rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences (as in “action, not words” or “they promised freedom and provided slavery”) (2) : opposition, contrast
b (1) : the second of two opposing words, clauses, or sentences that are being rhetorically contrasted (2) : the direct opposite
2 : the second stage of a dialectic process
Other forms: plural an·tith·e·ses \-ˌsēz\
Examples
true love for another is the antithesis of the desire to control that person's life
Origin: Late Latin, from Greek, literally, opposition, from antitithenai to oppose, from anti- + tithenai to set — more at do.
First use: 1529
Synonyms: antipode, opposite, contrary, counter, negative, obverse, reverse

107

Bulwark

bul·wark\ˈbu̇l-(ˌ)wərk, -ˌwȯrk; ˈbəl-(ˌ)wərk; sense 3 also ˈbə-ˌläk\
noun
: something that provides protection for or against something
: a wall that is built for protection
: a wall that is part of a ship's sides and that is above the ship's upper deck
Full Definition
1 a : a solid wall-like structure raised for defense : rampart
b : breakwater, seawall
2 : a strong support or protection
3 : the side of a ship above the upper deck — usually used in plural
Origin: Middle English bulwerke, from Middle Dutch bolwerc, from bolle tree trunk + werc work.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: defend, cover, fence, fend, forfend, guard, keep, protect, safeguard, screen, secure, shield, ward
Antonyms: assail, assault, attack
2bulwark
transitive verb
: to fortify or safeguard with a bulwark
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: defend, cover, fence, fend, forfend, guard, keep, protect, safeguard, screen, secure, shield, ward
Antonyms: assail, assault, attack

108

Frugal

fru·gal\ˈfrü-gəl\
adjective
: careful about spending money or using things when you do not need to : using money or supplies in a very careful way
: simple and plain
Full Definition
: characterized by or reflecting economy in the use of resources
synonyms see sparing
fru·gal·i·ty \frü-ˈga-lə-tē\ noun
fru·gal·ly \ˈfrü-gə-lē\ adverb
Examples
by being frugal, the family is able to stretch its monthly budget
Origin: Middle French or Latin; Middle French, from Latin frugalis virtuous, frugal, from frug-, frux fruit, value; akin to Latin frui to enjoy.
First use: 1590
Synonyms: economical, economizing, provident, scrimping, sparing, thrifty
Antonyms: prodigal, profligate, spendthrift, squandering, thriftless, unthrifty, wasteful

109

Prolific

110

Altruism

al·tru·ism\ˈal-trü-ˌi-zəm\
noun
: feelings and behavior that show a desire to help other people and a lack of selfishness
Full Definition
1 : unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others
2 : behavior by an animal that is not beneficial to or may be harmful to itself but that benefits others of its species
al·tru·ist \-trü-ist\ noun
al·tru·is·tic \ˌal-trü-ˈis-tik\ adjective
al·tru·is·ti·cal·ly \-ti-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
Origin: French altruisme, from autrui other people, from Old French, oblique case form of autre other, from Latin alter.
First use: 1853

111

Cache

cache\ˈkash\
noun
: a group of things that have been hidden in a secret place because they are illegal or have been stolen
: a part of a computer's memory where information is kept so that the computer can find it very quickly
Full Definition
1 a : a hiding place especially for concealing and preserving provisions or implements
b : a secure place of storage
2 : something hidden or stored in a cache
3 : a computer memory with very short access time used for storage of frequently or recently used instructions or data —called also cache memory
Origin: French, from cacher to press, hide, from Vulgar Latin *coacticare to press together, from Latin coactare to compel, frequentative of cogere to compel — more at cogent.
First use: 1797
Synonyms: store, deposit, hoard, reserve
Synonyms: hoard, lay away, lay by, lay in, lay up, put by, salt away, squirrel (away), stash, stockpile, store, stow, treasure
Antonyms: display, exhibit
2cache
transitive verb
: to place, hide, or store in a cache
Other forms: cached; cach·ing
First use: 1805
Synonyms: store, deposit, hoard, reserve
Synonyms: hoard, lay away, lay by, lay in, lay up, put by, salt away, squirrel (away), stash, stockpile, store, stow, treasure

112

Embellish

113

Coterie

co·te·rie\ˈkō-tə-(ˌ)rē, ˌkō-tə-ˈ\
noun
: a small group of people who are interested in the same thing and who usually do not allow other people to join the group
Full Definition
: an intimate and often exclusive group of persons with a unifying common interest or purpose
Examples
a coterie of old friends who attend all of the home games of the high school basketball team
Origin: French, from Middle French, tenants, from Old French cotier cotter, of Germanic origin; akin to Old English cot hut.
First use: 1738
Synonyms: body, bunch, circle, clan, clique, community, gang, coven, crowd, fold, galère, klatch (also klatsch), lot, network, pack, ring, set

114

Cupidity

cu·pid·i·ty\kyu̇-ˈpi-də-tē\
noun
: a strong desire for money or possessions
Full Definition
1 : inordinate desire for wealth : avarice, greed
2 : strong desire : lust
Other forms: plural cu·pid·i·ties
Examples
reports of great treasure in the Indies inflamed the cupidity of Columbus's crew
Origin: Middle English cupidite, from Anglo-French cupidité, from Latin cupiditat-, cupiditas — more at covet.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: acquisitiveness, avarice, avariciousness, avidity, avidness, covetousness, greed, graspingness, greediness, mercenariness, rapaciousness, rapacity

115

Virtuosity

vir·tu·os·i·ty\-ˈä-sə-tē\
noun
: great ability or skill shown by a musician, performer, etc.
Full Definition
1 : a taste for or interest in virtu
2 : great technical skill (as in the practice of a fine art)
Other forms: plural vir·tu·os·i·ties
First use: 1673

116

Progeny

prog·e·ny\ˈprä-jə-nē\
noun
: a person who comes from a particular parent or family : the child or descendant of someone
: the young of an animal or plant
: something that is the product of something else
Full Definition
1 a : descendants, children
b : offspring of animals or plants
2 : outcome, product
3 : a body of followers, disciples, or successors
Other forms: plural prog·e·nies
Examples
the rancher carefully examined the progeny of the new breed of cattle
Origin: Middle English progenie, from Anglo-French, from Latin progenies, from progignere.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: fruit, get, issue, posterity, offspring, seed, spawn

117

Temerity

te·mer·i·ty\tə-ˈmer-ə-tē\
noun
: the quality of being confident and unafraid of danger or punishment especially in a way that seems rude or foolish
Full Definition
1 : unreasonable or foolhardy contempt of danger or opposition : rashness, recklessness
2 : a rash or reckless act
Other forms: plural te·mer·i·ties
Examples
she had the temerity to ask my boyfriend if she could go out with him should he and I ever break up
Origin: Middle English temeryte, from Latin temeritas, from temere blindly, recklessly; akin to Old High German demar darkness, Latin tenebrae, Sanskrit tamas.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: audaciousness, audacity, brashness, brass, brassiness, brazenness, cheek, cheekiness, chutzpah (also chutzpa or hutzpah or hutzpa), crust, face, gall, nerve, nerviness, pertness, presumption, presumptuousness, sauce, sauciness, effrontery

118

Amorous

am·o·rous\ˈa-mə-rəs, ˈam-rəs\
adjective
: having or showing strong feelings of sexual attraction or love
Full Definition
1 : strongly moved by love and especially sexual love
2 : being in love : enamored — usually used with of
3 a : indicative of love
b : of or relating to love
am·o·rous·ly adverb
am·o·rous·ness noun
Examples
male birds engage in amorous behavior—nest-building, singing, showing off their finery—in order to attract females
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French, from Medieval Latin amorosus, from Latin amor love, from amare to love.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: amatory, erotic, aphrodisiac (also aphrodisiacal), erogenous, erotogenic, sexy, steamy
Antonyms: nonerotic, unerotic, unsexy

119

Saturate

sat·u·rate\ˈsa-chə-ˌrāt\
transitive verb
: to make (something) very wet
: to fill (something) completely with something
Full Definition
1 : to satisfy fully : satiate
2 : to treat, furnish, or charge with something to the point where no more can be absorbed, dissolved, or retained
3 a : to fill completely with something that permeates or pervades
b : to load to capacity
4 : to cause to combine until there is no further tendency to combine
synonyms see soak
Other forms: sat·u·rat·ed; sat·u·rat·ing
sat·u·ra·tor \-ˌrā-tər\ noun
Origin: Latin saturatus, past participle of saturare, from satur well-fed — more at satire.
First use: 1538
Synonyms: awash, bathed, bedraggled, doused (also dowsed), drenched, dripping, logged, wet, saturated, soaked, soaking, sodden, soggy, sopping, soppy, soused, washed, watered, waterlogged, water-soaked, watery
Antonyms: arid, dry, unwatered, waterless
Synonyms: drench, drown, impregnate, macerate, soak, sodden, sop, souse, steep
Antonyms: wring (out)
2sat·u·rate\ˈsach-rət, ˈsa-chə-\
adjective
: saturated

120

Perpetrate

per·pe·trate\ˈpər-pə-ˌtrāt\
: to do (something that is illegal or wrong)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to bring about or carry out (as a crime or deception) : commit
2 : to produce, perform, or execute (something likened to a crime)
Other forms: per·pe·trat·ed; per·pe·trat·ing
per·pe·tra·tion \ˌpər-pə-ˈtrā-shən\ noun
per·pe·tra·tor \ˈpər-pə-ˌtrā-tər\ noun
Examples
the anonymity of the Web allows pranksters to perpetrate their hoaxes with impunity
Origin: Latin perpetratus, past participle of perpetrare, from per- through + patrare to accomplish, from pater father — more at father.
First use: 1537
Synonyms: accomplish, achieve, bring off, carry off, carry out, commit, compass, do, execute, follow through (with), fulfill (or fulfil), make, negotiate, perform, prosecute, pull off, put through

121

Consummate

con·sum·mate\ˈkän(t)-sə-mət, kən-ˈsə-mət\
adjective
: very good or skillful
: very bad
Full Definition
1 : complete in every detail : perfect
2 : extremely skilled and accomplished

3 : of the highest degree
con·sum·mate·ly adverb
Origin: Middle English consummat fulfilled, from Latin consummatus, past participle of consummare to sum up, finish, from com- + summa sum.
First use: 1527
Synonyms: accomplished, ace, adept, compleat, complete, proficient, crack, crackerjack, educated, experienced, expert, good, great, master, masterful, masterly, practiced (also practised), professed, skilled, skillful, versed, veteran, virtuoso
Antonyms: amateur, amateurish, inexperienced, inexpert, jackleg, unprofessional, unseasoned, unskilled, unskillful
Synonyms: complete, finish, finalize, perfect, polish
2con·sum·mate\ˈkän(t)-sə-ˌmāt\
: to make (a marriage or romantic relationship) complete by having sex
: to make (something) perfect or complete
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : finish, complete
b : to make perfect
c : achieve
2 : to make (marital union) complete by sexual intercourse
intransitive verb
: to become perfected
Other forms: con·sum·mat·ed; con·sum·mat·ing
con·sum·ma·tive \ˈkän(t)-sə-ˌmā-tiv, kən-ˈsə-mə-tiv\ adjective
con·sum·ma·tor \ˈkän(t)-sə-ˌmāt-ər\ noun
Origin: (see 1consummate ).
First use: 1530
Synonyms: accomplished, ace, adept, compleat, complete, proficient, crack, crackerjack, educated, experienced, expert, good, great, master, masterful, masterly, practiced (also practised), professed, skilled, skillful, versed, veteran, virtuoso

122

Subterfuge

sub·ter·fuge\ˈsəb-tər-ˌfyüj\
noun
: the use of tricks especially to hide, avoid, or get something
Full Definition
1 : deception by artifice or strategem in order to conceal, escape, or evade
2 : a deceptive device or stratagem
synonyms see deception
Examples
propagandists who use a kind of photographic subterfuge, superimposing one image on another to create a false “reality”
Origin: Late Latin subterfugium, from Latin subterfugere to escape, evade, from subter- secretly (from subter underneath; akin to Latin sub under) + fugere to flee — more at up, fugitive.
First use: 1573
Synonyms: artifice, chicane, chicanery, gamesmanship, hanky-panky, jiggery-pokery, jugglery, legerdemain, skulduggery (or skullduggery), trickery, wile

123

Concoct

con·coct\kən-ˈkäkt, kän-\
: to make (a food or drink) by mixing different things together
: to invent or develop (a plan, story, etc.) especially in order to trick or deceive someone
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to prepare by combining raw materials
2 : devise, fabricate
con·coct·er noun
con·coc·tion \-ˈkäk-shən\ noun
con·coc·tive \-ˈkäk-tiv\ adjective
Examples
trying to concoct an explanation for how the lamp got broken by itself
Origin: Latin concoctus, past participle of concoquere to cook together, from com- + coquere to cook — more at cook.
First use: 1594
Synonyms: invent, construct, contrive, cook (up), devise, drum up, excogitate, fabricate, make up, manufacture, think (up), trump up, vamp (up)

124

Fallacious

125

Manifold

man·i·fold\ˈma-nə-ˌfōld\
adjective
: many and various
Full Definition
1 a : marked by diversity or variety
b : many
2 : comprehending or uniting various features : multifarious
3 : rightfully so-called for many reasons

4 : consisting of or operating many of one kind combined

man·i·fold·ly \-ˌfōl(d)-lē\ adverb
man·i·fold·ness \-ˌfōl(d)-nəs\ noun
Origin: Middle English, from Old English manigfeald, from manig many + -feald -fold.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: divers, multifarious, myriad
2manifold
adverb
: many times : a great deal
Examples
an intake manifold
an exhaust manifold
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: divers, multifarious, myriad
3manifold
transitive verb
1 : to make manifold : multiply
2 : to make several or many copies of
intransitive verb
: to make several or many copies
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: divers, multifarious, myriad
4manifold
noun
: a part of an engine that connects different pipes for moving fuel and air into the engine or for carrying gases away from the engine
Full Definition
: something that is manifold: as
a : a whole that unites or consists of many diverse elements
b : a pipe fitting with several lateral outlets for connecting one pipe with others; also : a fitting on an internal combustion engine that directs a fuel and air mixture to or receives the exhaust gases from several cylinders
c : set 21
d : a topological space in which every point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to the interior of a sphere in Euclidean space of the same number of dimensions

126

Assiduous

as·sid·u·ous\ə-ˈsij-wəs, -ˈsi-jə-\
adjective
: showing great care, attention, and effort
Full Definition
: marked by careful unremitting attention or persistent application
synonyms see busy
as·sid·u·ous·ly adverb
as·sid·u·ous·ness noun
Examples
the fascinating sight of assiduous ants carrying food into the anthill
Origin: Latin assiduus, from assidēre.
First use: 1622
Synonyms: active, busy, bustling, diligent, employed, engaged, hopping, industrious, laborious, occupied, sedulous, tied-up, working
Antonyms: idle, inactive, unbusy, unemployed, unoccupied

127

Impeccable

im·pec·ca·ble\(ˌ)im-ˈpek-ə-bəl\
adjective
: free from fault or error
Full Definition
1 : not capable of sinning or liable to sin
2 : free from fault or blame : flawless
im·pec·ca·bil·i·ty \-ˌpe-kə-ˈbi-lə-tē\ noun
im·pec·ca·bly \-ˈpe-kə-blē\ adverb
Examples
the etiquette expert was celebrated for her absolutely impeccable manners
the head of the investigation must be a person of impeccable probity and honesty
the belief that there can be no such thing as an impeccable soul
Origin: Latin impeccabilis, from in- + peccare to sin.
First use: 1531
Synonyms: absolute, faultless, flawless, ideal, immaculate, perfect, indefectible, irreproachable, letter-perfect, picture-book, picture-perfect, seamless, unblemished
Antonyms: amiss, bad, censurable, defective, faulty, flawed, imperfect, reproachable

128

Fraught

129

Resourceful

130

Murky

murky\ˈmər-kē\
adjective
: very dark or foggy
of a liquid : not clear
: not clearly expressed or understood
Full Definition
1 : characterized by a heavy dimness or obscurity caused by or like that caused by overhanging fog or smoke
2 : characterized by thickness and heaviness of air : foggy, misty
3 : darkly vague or obscure
Other forms: murk·i·er; murk·i·est
murk·i·ly \-kə-lē\ adverb
murk·i·ness \-kē-nəs\ noun
Examples
murky skies
She peered into one of the church's murky chapels.
the lake's murky water
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: black, caliginous, darkened, darkish, darkling, darksome, dim, dimmed, dusk, dusky, gloomy, lightless, dark, obscure, obscured, pitch-black, pitch-dark, pitchy, rayless, somber (or sombre), stygian, tenebrific, tenebrous, unlit
Antonyms: bright, brightened, brilliant, illuminated, illumined, light, lit (or lighted), lightsome, lucent, lucid, luminous

131

Component

com·po·nent\kəm-ˈpō-nənt, ˈkäm-ˌ, käm-ˈ\
noun
: one of the parts of something (such as a system or mixture) : an important piece of something
Full Definition
1 : a constituent part : ingredient
2 a : any one of the vector terms added to form a vector sum or resultant
b : a coordinate of a vector; also : either member of an ordered pair of numbers
synonyms see element
com·po·nen·tial \ˌkäm-pə-ˈnen(t)-shəl\ adjective
Origin: Latin component-, componens, present participle of componere to put together — more at compound.
First use: 1645
Synonyms: building block, element, constituent, factor, ingredient, member
Antonyms: whole
2component
adjective
: helping to make up the whole of something (such as a system or a mixture) : forming or being a part of something
Full Definition
: serving or helping to constitute : constituent
Examples
the component parts of a machine
First use: 1664
Synonyms: building block, element, constituent, factor, ingredient, member

132

Hoax

hoax\ˈhōks\
: to trick or deceive (someone)
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to trick into believing or accepting as genuine something false and often preposterous
hoax·er noun
Examples
The bomb threat is probably a hoax, but we should still evacuate the building.
She was the victim of a cruel hoax.
Origin: probably contraction of hocus.
First use: circa 1796
Synonyms: counterfeit, forgery, fake, humbug, phony (also phoney), sham
Synonyms: bamboozle, beguile, bluff, buffalo, burn, catch, con, cozen, delude, dupe, fake out, fool, gaff, gammon, gull, have, have on [chiefly British], deceive, hoodwink, hornswoggle, humbug, juggle, misguide, misinform, mislead, snooker, snow, spoof, string along, sucker, suck in, take in, trick
Antonyms: undeceive
2hoax
noun
: an act that is meant to trick or deceive people
Full Definition
1 : an act intended to trick or dupe : imposture
2 : something accepted or established by fraud or fabrication
Examples
People were hoaxed by the Web site.
a skilled forger who hoaxed the art world into believing that the paintings were long-lost Vermeers
First use: 1808
Synonyms: counterfeit, forgery, fake, humbug, phony (also phoney), sham
Synonyms: bamboozle, beguile, bluff, buffalo, burn, catch, con, cozen, delude, dupe, fake out, fool, gaff, gammon, gull, have, have on [chiefly British], deceive, hoodwink, hornswoggle, humbug, juggle, misguide, misinform, mislead, snooker, snow, spoof, string along, sucker, suck in, take in, trick

133

Labyrinth

134

Evaluate

eval·u·ate\i-ˈval-yə-ˌwāt, -yü-ˌāt\
: to judge the value or condition of (someone or something) in a careful and thoughtful way
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to determine or fix the value of
2 : to determine the significance, worth, or condition of usually by careful appraisal and study
synonyms see estimate
Other forms: eval·u·at·ed; eval·u·at·ing
eval·u·a·tion \-ˌval-yə-ˈwā-shən, -yü-ˈā-\ noun
eval·u·a·tive \-ˈval-yə-ˌwā-tiv, -yü-ˌā-\ adjective
eval·u·a·tor \-tər\ noun
Examples
a trained assistant to evaluate the needs of the patients waiting to see the doctor
Origin: back-formation from evaluation, from French évaluation, from Middle French evaluacion, from esvaluer to evaluate, from e- + value value.
First use: 1842
Synonyms: appraise, assess, estimate, guesstimate, rate, set, valuate, value

135

Exult

ex·ult\ig-ˈzəlt\
: to feel or show great happiness
: to say (something) in a very excited and happy way
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 obsolete : to leap for joy
2 : to be extremely joyful : rejoice
ex·ult·ing·ly \-ˈzəl-tiŋ-lē\ adverb
Examples
the winners of the Super Bowl spent the next week exulting in their victory
Origin: Middle French exulter, from Latin exsultare, literally, to leap up, from ex- + saltare to leap — more at saltation.
First use: 1548
Synonyms: crow, delight, exuberate, glory, jubilate, joy, kvell, rejoice, triumph, kick up one's heels

136

Attest

at·test\ə-ˈtest\
: to show, prove, or state that something is true or real
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to affirm to be true or genuine; specifically : to authenticate by signing as a witness
b : to authenticate officially
2 : to establish or verify the usage of
3 : to be proof of : manifest
4 : to put on oathintransitive verb
: to bear witness : testify
synonyms see certify
at·tes·ta·tion \ˌa-ˌtes-ˈtā-shən, ˌa-tə-ˈstā-\ noun
at·test·er \ə-ˈtes-tər\ noun
Examples
the appraiser attests that the lamp is indeed an original Tiffany
an eyewitness who will attest to my innocence
I'll attest that she was at the party
Origin: Middle French attester, from Latin attestari, from ad- + testis witness — more at testament.
First use: circa 1500
Synonyms: certify, authenticate, avouch, testify (to), vouch (for), witness
Antonyms: disprove, rebut, refute

137

Gullible

gull·ible
adjective
: easily fooled or cheated ; especially : quick to believe something that is not true
Full Definition
: easily duped or cheated
gull·ibil·i·ty \ˌgə-lə-ˈbi-lə-tē\ noun
gull·ibly \ˈgə-lə-blē\ adverb
Examples
he thought his grandmother was gullible simply because she was elderly, but she was sharper than he was in many ways
Variants: also gull·able \ˈgə-lə-bəl\
First use: 1818
Synonyms: dewy-eyed, exploitable, easy (also gullable), naive (or naïve), susceptible, trusting, unwary, wide-eyed

138

Deploy

de·ploy\di-ˈplȯi\
: to organize and send out (people or things) to be used for a particular purpose
: to open up and spread out the parts of (something, such as a parachute)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to extend (a military unit) especially in width
b : to place in battle formation or appropriate positions
2 : to spread out, utilize, or arrange for a deliberate purpose
intransitive verb
: to move, spread out, or function while being deployed
de·ploy·able \-ə-bəl\ adjective
de·ploy·ment \-mənt\ noun
Origin: French déployer, literally, to unfold, from Old French desploier, from des- dis- + ploier, plier to fold — more at ply.
First use: 1616

139

Enigma

enig·ma\i-ˈnig-mə, e-\
noun
: someone or something that is difficult to understand or explain
Full Definition
1 : an obscure speech or writing
2 : something hard to understand or explain
3 : an inscrutable or mysterious person
synonyms see mystery
Examples
how Thomas Jefferson could be both a slaveholder and a champion of liberty remains an enigma
Origin: Latin aenigma, from Greek ainigmat-, ainigma, from ainissesthai to speak in riddles, from ainos fable.
First use: 1539
Synonyms: closed book, conundrum, mystery, head-scratcher, mystification, puzzle, puzzlement, riddle, secret

140

Abortive

abor·tive\ə-ˈbȯr-tiv\
adjective
: failing to achieve the desired result : not successful
Full Definition
1 obsolete : prematurely born
2 : fruitless, unsuccessful
3 : imperfectly formed or developed
4 : tending to cut short
abor·tive·ly adverb
abor·tive·ness noun
Examples
an abortive attempt to recover the sunken pirate ship
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: futile, barren, bootless, empty, fruitless, ineffective, ineffectual, inefficacious, otiose, profitless, unavailing, unproductive, unprofitable, unsuccessful, useless, vain
Antonyms: deadly, effective, effectual, efficacious, efficient, fruitful, potent, productive, profitable, successful, virtuous

141

Modify

mod·i·fy\ˈmä-də-ˌfī\
: to change some parts of (something) while not changing other parts
grammar : to limit or describe the meaning of (a word or group of words)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to make less extreme : moderate
2 a : to limit or restrict the meaning of especially in a grammatical construction
b : to change (a vowel) by umlaut
3 a : to make minor changes in
b : to make basic or fundamental changes in often to give a new orientation to or to serve a new end
intransitive verb
: to undergo change
synonyms see change
Other forms: mod·i·fied; mod·i·fy·ing
mod·i·fi·abil·i·ty \ˌmä-də-ˌfī-ə-ˈbi-lə-tē\ noun
mod·i·fi·able \ˈmä-də-ˌfī-ə-bəl\ adjective
Examples
adjectives are words that modify nouns, while adverbs can modify adjectives and verbs
he modified the appliance so that it would run more quietly
Origin: Middle English modifien, from Anglo-French modifier, from Latin modificare to measure, moderate, from modus.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: qualify
Antonyms: fix, freeze, set, stabilize

142

Accommodate

ac·com·mo·date\ə-ˈkä-mə-ˌdāt\
: to provide room for (someone) : to provide a place to stay and sleep for (someone)
: to have room for (someone or something)
: to do something helpful for (someone) : to provide what is needed or wanted for (someone or something)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to make fit, suitable, or congruous
2 : to bring into agreement or concord : reconcile
3 : to provide with something desired, needed, or suited
4 a : to make room for
b : to hold without crowding or inconvenience
5 : to give consideration to : allow for
intransitive verb
: to adapt oneself; also : to undergo visual accommodation
synonyms see adapt, contain
Other forms: ac·com·mo·dat·ed; ac·com·mo·dat·ing
ac·com·mo·da·tive \-ˌdā-tiv\ adjective
ac·com·mo·da·tive·ness noun
ac·com·mo·da·tor \-ˌdā-tər\ noun
Examples
the back seat accommodates three people comfortably
let's accommodate the difference in their voices by moving the mike closer to Sarah, whose voice is softer
accommodated the lectern to the height of the guest speaker, who turned out to be quite short
Origin: Latin accommodatus, past participle of accommodare, from ad- + commodare to make fit, from commodus suitable — more at commode.
First use: 1550
Synonyms: fit, hold, take
Antonyms: disharmonize

143

Spontaneous

spon·ta·ne·ous\spän-ˈtā-nē-əs\
adjective
: done or said in a natural and often sudden way and without a lot of thought or planning
: doing things that have not been planned but that seem enjoyable and worth doing at a particular time
Full Definition
1 : proceeding from natural feeling or native tendency without external constraint
2 : arising from a momentary impulse
3 : controlled and directed internally : self-acting
4 : produced without being planted or without human labor : indigenous
5 : developing or occurring without apparent external influence, force, cause, or treatment
6 : not apparently contrived or manipulated : natural
spon·ta·ne·ous·ly adverb
spon·ta·ne·ous·ness noun
Examples
hugging a crying child is simply a spontaneous reaction
Origin: Late Latin spontaneus, from Latin sponte of one's free will, voluntarily.
First use: 1653
Synonyms: instinctive, instinctual, involuntary, knee-jerk, mechanic, mechanical, robotic, automatic
Antonyms: nonmechanical

144

Innate

in·nate\i-ˈnāt, ˈi-ˌ\
adjective
: existing from the time a person or animal is born
: existing as part of the basic nature of something
Full Definition
1 : existing in, belonging to, or determined by factors present in an individual from birth : native, inborn
2 : belonging to the essential nature of something : inherent
3 : originating in or derived from the mind or the constitution of the intellect rather than from experience
in·nate·ly adverb
in·nate·ness noun
Examples
an innate athletic ability that allowed him to excel at just about any sport he tried his hand at
Origin: Middle English innat, from Latin innatus, past participle of innasci to be born in, from in- + nasci to be born — more at nation.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: built-in, constitutional, constitutive, essential, hardwired, immanent, inborn, inbred, indigenous, ingrain, ingrained (also engrained), inherent, integral, intrinsic, native, natural
Antonyms: adventitious, extraneous, extrinsic

145

Veneer

146

Myriad

myr·i·ad\ˈmir-ē-əd\
noun
: a very large number ofthings
Full Definition
1 : ten thousand
2 : a great number

Origin: Greek myriad-, myrias, from myrioi countless, ten thousand.
First use: 1555
Synonyms: divers, multifarious, manifold
Antonyms: countable, enumerable, numberable
Synonyms: abundance, barrel, basketful, boatload, bucket, bunch, bundle, bushel, carload, chunk, deal, dozen, fistful, gobs, good deal, heap, hundred, lashings (also lashins) [chiefly British], loads, mass, mess, mountain, much, multiplicity, lot, oodles, pack, passel, peck, pile, plateful, plenitude, plentitude, plenty, pot, potful, profusion, quantity, raft, reams, scads, sheaf, shipload, sight, slew, spate, stack, store, ton, truckload, volume, wad, wealth, yard
Antonyms: ace, bit, dab, dram, driblet, glimmer, handful, hint, lick, little, mite, mouthful, nip, ounce, peanuts, pinch, pittance, scruple, shade, shadow, smidgen (also smidgeon or smidgin or smidge), speck, spot, sprinkle, sprinkling, strain, streak, suspicion, tad, taste, touch, trace
Usage: Recent criticism of the use of myriad as a noun, both in the plural form myriads and in the phrase a myriad of, seems to reflect a mistaken belief that the word was originally and is still properly only an adjective. As the entries here show, however, the noun is in fact the older form, dating to the 16th century. The noun myriad has appeared in the works of such writers as Milton (plural myriads) and Thoreau (a myriad of), and it continues to occur frequently in reputable English. There is no reason to avoid it.

147

Urbane

ur·bane\ˌər-ˈbān\
adjective
: polite and confident
: fashionable and somewhat formal
Full Definition
: notably polite or polished in manner
synonyms see suave
ur·bane·ly adverb
Examples
a gentlemanly and urbane host of elegant dinner parties
Origin: Latin urbanus urban, urbane.
First use: circa 1623
Synonyms: debonair, smooth, sophisticated, svelte, suave
Antonyms: boorish, churlish, classless, clownish, loutish, uncouth

148

Crave

crave\ˈkrāv\
: to have a very strong desire for (something)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to ask for earnestly : beg, demand
2 a : to want greatly : need
b : to yearn for
intransitive verb
: to have a strong or inward desire
synonyms see desire
Other forms: craved; crav·ing
crav·er noun
Examples
Like many celebrities, he craves attention.
I was craving french fries, so I pulled into the nearest fast-food restaurant.
Origin: Middle English, from Old English crafian; akin to Old Norse krefja to crave, demand.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: ache (for), covet, desire, desiderate, die (for), hanker (for or after), hunger (for), itch (for), jones (for) [slang], long (for), lust (for or after), pant (after), pine (for), repine (for), salivate (for), sigh (for), thirst (for), want, wish (for), yearn (for), yen (for)

149

Irrelevant

ir·rel·e·vant\-vənt\
adjective
: not important or relating to what is being discussed right now : not relevant
Full Definition
: not relevant : inapplicable
ir·rel·e·vant·ly adverb
Examples
irrelevant questions that merely disrupted the classroom lesson
First use: 1786
Synonyms: extraneous, immaterial, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite, irrelative, beside the point, neither here nor there
Antonyms: applicable, apposite, apropos, germane, material, pertinent, pointed, relative, relevant

150

Deem

deem\ˈdēm\
: to think of (someone or something) in a particular way
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to come to think or judge : consider
intransitive verb
: to have an opinion : believe
Examples
The building was deemed unsafe after the fire.
We deemed it wise to wait.
Do whatever you deem (to be) necessary.
Origin: Middle English demen, from Old English dēman; akin to Old High German tuomen to judge, Old English dōm doom.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: allow [chiefly Southern&Midland], conceive, consider, believe, esteem, feel, figure, guess, hold, imagine, judge, reckon [chiefly dialect], suppose, think

151

Inherent

in·her·ent\in-ˈhir-ənt, -ˈher-\
adjective
: belonging to the basic nature of someone or something
Full Definition
: involved in the constitution or essential character of something : belonging by nature or habit : intrinsic
in·her·ent·ly adverb
Examples
an inherent concept of justice
Origin: Latin inhaerent-, inhaerens, present participle of inhaerēre (see inhere ).
First use: 1581
Synonyms: built-in, constitutional, constitutive, essential, hardwired, immanent, inborn, inbred, indigenous, ingrain, ingrained (also engrained), innate, integral, intrinsic, native, natural, in one's blood
Antonyms: adventitious, extraneous, extrinsic

152

Buff

buff\ˈbəf\
noun
1 : a garment (as a uniform) made of buff leather
2 : the state of being nude
3 a : a moderate orange yellow
b : a light to moderate yellow
4 : a device having a soft absorbent surface (as of cloth) by which polishing material is applied
5 [earlier buff an enthusiast about going to fires; perhaps from the buff overcoats worn by volunteer firefighters in New York City ab 1820] : fan, enthusiast
Examples
She's a tennis buff.
history/movie/music buffs
They sunbathe in the buff.
Origin: Middle French buffle wild ox, from Old Italian bufalo.
First use: 1570
Synonyms: addict, aficionado (also afficionado), fan, bug, devotee, enthusiast, fanatic, fancier, fiend, fool, freak, habitué (also habitue), head, hound, junkie (also junky), lover, maniac, maven (also mavin), nut, sucker
Antonyms: nonfan
Synonyms: grind, file, hone, rasp, rub, sand
2buff
adjective
: having a strong, muscular body or form
Full Definition
1 : of the color buff
2 or buffed : having a physique enhanced by bodybuilding exercises
First use: 1746
Synonyms: addict, aficionado (also afficionado), fan, bug, devotee, enthusiast, fanatic, fancier, fiend, fool, freak, habitué (also habitue), head, hound, junkie (also junky), lover, maniac, maven (also mavin), nut, sucker
Antonyms: nonfan
Synonyms: grind, file, hone, rasp, rub, sand
3buff
: to make (a surface) smooth and shiny by rubbing it
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : polish, shine
2 : to give a velvety surface to (leather)
Examples
a buff bodybuilder
He's at the gym every day trying to get buff.
the buff body of an athlete
First use: 1838
Synonyms: addict, aficionado (also afficionado), fan, bug, devotee, enthusiast, fanatic, fancier, fiend, fool, freak, habitué (also habitue), head, hound, junkie (also junky), lover, maniac, maven (also mavin), nut, sucker

153

Romp

romp\ˈrämp, ˈrȯmp\
noun
: an enjoyable time of rough and noisy play
: an easy victory
: an enjoyable and lively movie, book, play, etc.
Full Definition
1 : one that romps; especially : a romping girl or woman
2 a : high-spirited, carefree, and boisterous play
b : something suggestive of such play: as (1) : a light fast-paced narrative, dramatic, or musical work usually in a comic mood (2) : an episode of lovemaking
3 : an easy winning pace; also : runaway 3
Examples
The dogs love a good romp through the woods.
The game turned into a romp in the second half.
His latest film is a wildly amusing romp.
Origin: partly alteration of 2ramp; partly alteration of ramp bold woman.
First use: 1691
Synonyms: binge, frisk, frolic, gambol, idyll (also idyl), lark, ploy, revel, rollick, fling, spree
Synonyms: caper, cavort, disport, frisk, gambol, lark, rollick, frolic, sport
2romp
: to play in a rough and noisy way
: to easily win a race, contest, etc.
: to move, go, or proceed in a quick, easy, or playful way
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 : to run or play in a lively, carefree, or boisterous manner
2 : to move or proceed in a brisk, easy, or playful manner
3 : to win a contest easily
Examples
The kids were romping in the yard.
The home team romped to a 21–6 win/victory.
(chiefly Brit) He is now the favorite to romp home (to victory) in the upcoming election.
Origin: alteration of 1ramp.
First use: 1662
Synonyms: binge, frisk, frolic, gambol, idyll (also idyl), lark, ploy, revel, rollick, fling, spree
Synonyms: caper, cavort, disport, frisk, gambol, lark, rollick, frolic, sport

154

Latent

155

Tortuous

156

Itinerant

itin·er·ant\-rənt\
adjective
: traveling from place to place : staying in a place for only a short amount of time
Full Definition
: traveling from place to place; especially : covering a circuit
itinerant noun
itin·er·ant·ly adverb
Examples
an itinerant musician can see a lot of the world
Origin: Late Latin itinerant-, itinerans, present participle of itinerari to journey, from Latin itiner-, iter journey, way; akin to Hittite itar way, Latin ire to go — more at issue.
First use: circa 1576
Synonyms: ambulant, ambulatory, errant, fugitive, gallivanting (also galavanting), nomad, nomadic, perambulatory, peregrine, peripatetic, ranging, roaming, roving, vagabond, vagrant, wandering, wayfaring, on the move

157

Peregrinate

per·e·gri·nate\ˈper-ə-grə-ˌnāt\
intransitive verb
: to travel especially on foot : walk
transitive verb
: to walk or travel over : traverse
Other forms: per·e·gri·nat·ed; per·e·gri·nat·ing
per·e·gri·na·tion \ˌper-ə-grə-ˈnā-shən\ noun
Examples
Jack Kerouac's celebrated novel about penniless free spirits peregrinating the United States
a couple of backpacking college students who decided to spend the summer peregrinating around Ireland
First use: 1593
Synonyms: course, cover, cross, cut (across), follow, go, navigate, pass (over), perambulate, traverse, proceed (along), track, transit, travel

158

Conjugal

con·ju·gal\ˈkän-ji-gəl also kən-ˈjü-\
adjective
: relating to marriage or to a married couple
Full Definition
: of or relating to the married state or to married persons and their relations : connubial
con·ju·gal·i·ty \ˌkän-ji-ˈga-lə-tē, -jü-\ noun
con·ju·gal·ly \ˈkän-ji-gə-lē also kən-ˈjü-\ adverb
Examples
newlyweds still in a rapturous state of conjugal happiness
Origin: Middle French or Latin; Middle French, from Latin conjugalis, from conjug-, conjux husband, wife, from conjungere to join, unite in marriage.
First use: 1545
Synonyms: marital, connubial, married, matrimonial, nuptial, wedded
Antonyms: nonmarital

159

Barometer

160

Megalomania

meg·a·lo·ma·nia\ˌme-gə-lō-ˈmā-nē-ə, -nyə\
noun
: a condition or mental illness that causes people to think that they have great or unlimited power or importance
Full Definition
1 : a mania for great or grandiose performance
2 : a delusional mental disorder that is marked by feelings of personal omnipotence and grandeur
meg·a·lo·ma·ni·ac \-ˈmā-nē-ˌak\ adjective or noun
meg·a·lo·ma·ni·a·cal \-mə-ˈnī-ə-kəl\ also meg·a·lo·man·ic \-ˈma-nik\ adjective
meg·a·lo·ma·ni·a·cal·ly \-mə-ˈnī-ə-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
Origin: New Latin.
First use: 1885

161

Profligate

prof·li·gate\ˈprä-fli-gət, -ˌgāt\
adjective
: carelessly and foolishly wasting money, materials, etc. : very wasteful
Full Definition
1 : wildly extravagant
2 : completely given up to dissipation and licentiousness
prof·li·gate·ly adverb
Origin: Latin profligatus, from past participle of profligare to strike down, from pro- forward, down + -fligare (akin to fligere to strike); akin to Greek phlibein to squeeze.
First use: 1617
Synonyms: extravagant, high-rolling, prodigal, spendthrift, squandering, thriftless, unthrifty, wasteful
Antonyms: conserving, economical, economizing, frugal, penny-pinching, scrimping, skimping, thrifty
Synonyms: fritterer, high roller, prodigal, spender, spendthrift, squanderer, waster, wastrel
Antonyms: economizer, penny-pincher
2prof·li·gate\ˈprä-fli-gət, -ˌgāt\
noun
: a person given to wildly extravagant and usually grossly self-indulgent expenditure
Origin: (see 1profligate ).
First use: 1709
Synonyms: extravagant, high-rolling, prodigal, spendthrift, squandering, thriftless, unthrifty, wasteful
Antonyms: conserving, economical, economizing, frugal, penny-pinching, scrimping, skimping, thrifty
Synonyms: fritterer, high roller, prodigal, spender, spendthrift, squanderer, waster, wastrel

162

Strife

strife\ˈstrīf\
noun
: very angry or violent disagreement between two or more people or groups
Full Definition
1 a : bitter sometimes violent conflict or dissension
b : an act of contention : fight, struggle
2 : exertion or contention for superiority
3 archaic : earnest endeavor
synonyms see discord
strife·less \ˈstrī-fləs\ adjective
Examples
political/religious strife
civil strife
Origin: Middle English strif, from Anglo-French estrif, estri, of Germanic origin; akin to Middle Dutch striden to fight, Old High German strītan to quarrel — more at stride.
First use: 13th century
Synonyms: conflict, disaccord, discordance, discordancy, disharmony, dissension (also dissention), dissent, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, disunity, division, friction, infighting, inharmony, schism, discord, variance, war, warfare
Antonyms: accord, agreement, concord, concordance, harmony, peace

163

Legion

le·gion\ˈlē-jən\
noun
: a large group of soldiers in ancient Rome
: a large group of soldiers
: a national organization for former soldiers
Full Definition
1 : the principal unit of the Roman army comprising 3000 to 6000 foot soldiers with cavalry
2 : a large military force; especially : army 1a
3 : a very large number : multitude
4 : a national association of ex-servicemen
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French, from Latin legion-, legio, from legere to gather — more at legend.
First use: 13th century
Synonyms: beaucoup [slang], many, multifold, multiple, multiplex, multitudinous, numerous
Antonyms: few
Synonyms: array, battalion, host, army
2legion
adjective
: very many or numerous
Full Definition
: many, numerous
Examples
Her admirers/fans are legion.
the obstacles that the programmers had to overcome have been legion
First use: 1678
Synonyms: beaucoup [slang], many, multifold, multiple, multiplex, multitudinous, numerous
Antonyms: few
Synonyms: array, battalion, host, army

164

Coup

coup\ˈkōp\
verb
chiefly Scottish
: overturn, upset
Origin: Middle English, to strike, from Anglo-French couper — more at cope.
First use: circa 1572
Synonyms: achievement, acquirement, attainment, baby, accomplishment, success, triumph
Antonyms: nonachievement
2coup\ˈkü\
noun
: an impressive victory or achievement that usually is difficult or unexpected
Full Definition
1 : a brilliant, sudden, and usually highly successful stroke or act
2 : coup d'état
Other forms: plural coups \ˈküz\
Origin: French, blow, stroke — more at cope.
First use: 1791
Synonyms: achievement, acquirement, attainment, baby, accomplishment, success, triumph
Antonyms: nonachievement

165

Amnesty

am·nes·ty\ˈam-nə-stē\
noun
: a decision that a group of people will not be punished or that a group of prisoners will be allowed to go free
Full Definition
: the act of an authority (as a government) by which pardon is granted to a large group of individuals
Other forms: plural am·nes·ties
amnesty transitive verb
Examples
the president of France traditionally grants amnesty to specially selected prisoners on Bastille Day
Origin: Greek amnēstia forgetfulness, from amnēstos forgotten, from a- + mnasthai to remember — more at mind.
First use: 1580
Synonyms: absolution, pardon, forgiveness, remission, remittal
Antonyms: penalty, punishment, retribution

166

Expatriate

ex·pa·tri·ate\ek-ˈspā-trē-ˌāt\
transitive verb
1 : banish, exile
2 : to withdraw (oneself) from residence in or allegiance to one's native countryintransitive verb
: to leave one's native country to live elsewhere; also : to renounce allegiance to one's native country
Other forms: ex·pa·tri·at·ed; ex·pa·tri·at·ing
ex·pa·tri·ate \-ˌāt, -ət\ noun
ex·pa·tri·a·tion \(ˌ)ek-ˌspā-trē-ˈā-shən\ noun
Origin: Medieval Latin expatriatus, past participle of expatriare to leave one's own country, from Latin ex- + patria native country, from feminine of patrius of a father, from patr-, pater father — more at father.
First use: 1768
Synonyms: deport, displace, exile, banish, relegate, transport
2ex·pa·tri·ate\ek-ˈspā-trē-ət, -trē-ˌāt\
adjective
: living in a foreign land
First use: 1812
Synonyms: deport, displace, exile, banish, relegate, transport

167

Exonerate

ex·on·er·ate\ig-ˈzä-nə-ˌrāt, eg-\
: to prove that someone is not guilty of a crime or responsible for a problem, bad situation, etc.
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to relieve of a responsibility, obligation, or hardship
2 : to clear from accusation or blame
synonyms see exculpate
Other forms: ex·on·er·at·ed; ex·on·er·at·ing
ex·on·er·a·tion \-ˌzä-nə-ˈrā-shən\ noun
ex·on·er·a·tive \-ˈzä-nə-ˌrā-tiv\ adjective
Examples
the results of the DNA fingerprinting finally exonerated the man, but only after he had wasted 10 years of his life in prison
Origin: Middle English, from Latin exoneratus, past participle of exonerare to unburden, from ex- + oner-, onus load.
First use: 1524
Synonyms: absolve, acquit, clear, exculpate, vindicate
Antonyms: criminate, incriminate

168

Fiat

169

Mendacious

men·da·cious\men-ˈdā-shəs\
adjective
: not honest : likely to tell lies
: based on lies
Full Definition
: given to or characterized by deception or falsehood or divergence from absolute truth
synonyms see dishonest
men·da·cious·ly adverb
men·da·cious·ness noun
Examples
that tabloid routinely publishes the most moronically mendacious stories about celebrities
Origin: Latin mendac-, mendax — more at amend.
First use: 1616
Synonyms: lying, dishonest, untruthful
Antonyms: honest, truthful, veracious

170

Parsimonious

par·si·mo·ni·ous\ˌpär-sə-ˈmō-nē-əs\
adjective
: very unwilling to spend money
Full Definition
1 : exhibiting or marked by parsimony; especially : frugal to the point of stinginess
2 : sparing, restrained
synonyms see stingy
par·si·mo·ni·ous·ly adverb
Examples
a parsimonious woman who insists that charity begins—and ends—at home
Origin: (see parsimony ).
First use: 1598
Synonyms: cheap, chintzy, close, closefisted, mean, mingy, miserly, niggard, niggardly, stingy, penny-pinching, penurious, pinching, pinchpenny, spare, sparing, stinting, tight, tightfisted, uncharitable, ungenerous
Antonyms: bounteous, bountiful, charitable, freehanded, generous, liberal, munificent, openhanded, unsparing, unstinting

171

Pecuniary

pe·cu·ni·ary\pi-ˈkyü-nē-ˌer-ē\
adjective
: relating to or in the form of money
Full Definition
1 : consisting of or measured in money
2 : of or relating to money
pe·cu·ni·ar·i·ly \-ˌkyü-nē-ˈer-ə-lē\ adverb
Examples
that makes good pecuniary sense
the judge recused himself from the case because he had a pecuniary interest in the company that was being sued
Origin: Latin pecuniarius, from pecunia money — more at fee.
First use: 1502
Synonyms: dollars-and-cents, fiscal, monetary, financial, pocket
Antonyms: nonfinancial

172

Dismantle

dis·man·tle\(ˌ)dis-ˈman-təl\
: to take (something, such as a machine or structure) apart so that it is in separate pieces
: to destroy (something) in an orderly way : to gradually cause (something) to come to an end
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to take to pieces; also : to destroy the integrity or functioning of
2 : to strip of dress or covering : divest
3 : to strip of furniture and equipment
Other forms: dis·man·tled; dis·man·tling \-ˈmant-liŋ, -ˈman-təl-\
dis·man·tle·ment \-ˈman-təl-mənt\ noun
Examples
dismantle the table for easier transport
Origin: Middle French desmanteler, from des- dis- + mantel mantle.
First use: 1579
Synonyms: break down, demount, disassemble, dismember, dismount, knock down, strike, take down
Antonyms: assemble, construct

173

Sumptuous

174

Underwrite

un·der·write\ˈən-də(r)-ˌrīt, ˌən-də(r)-ˈ\
: to give money to support (something, such as a new business) and agree to be responsible for any losses if it fails
: to agree to pay for a certain kind of loss or damage by offering (an insurance policy)
: to agree to buy (shares) that are not bought by investors when the shares are first offered for sale
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to write under or at the end of something else
2 : to set one's name to (an insurance policy) for the purpose of thereby becoming answerable for a designated loss or damage on consideration of receiving a premium percent : insure on life or property; also : to assume liability for (a sum or risk) as an insurer
3 : to subscribe to : agree to
4 a : to agree to purchase (as security issue) usually on a fixed date at a fixed price with a view to public distribution
b : to guarantee financial support of
intransitive verb
: to work as an underwriter
Other forms: un·der·wrote\-ˌrōt, -ˈrōt\; un·der·writ·ten\-ˌri-tən, -ˈri-tən\; un·der·writ·ing\-ˌrī-tiŋ, -ˈrī-\
Examples
a university willing to underwrite an archaeological expedition
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: bankroll, capitalize, endow, fund, stake, subsidize, finance
Antonyms: defund

175

Restrictive

re·stric·tive\ri-ˈstrik-tiv\
adjective
: limiting or controlling someone or something
grammar of a word or group of words : giving information about a person or thing that is needed to understand which person or thing is meant
Full Definition
1 a : of or relating to restriction
b : serving or tending to restrict
2 : limiting the reference of a modified word or phrase
3 : prohibiting further negotiation
restrictive noun
re·stric·tive·ly adverb
re·stric·tive·ness noun
First use: 1579

176

Blunt

177

Nostalgia

nos·tal·gia\nä-ˈstal-jə, nə- also nȯ-, nō-; nə-ˈstäl-\
noun
: pleasure and sadness that is caused by remembering something from the past and wishing that you could experience it again
Full Definition
1 : the state of being homesick : homesickness
2 : a wistful or excessively sentimental yearning for return to or of some past period or irrecoverable condition; also : something that evokes nostalgia
nos·tal·gic \-jik\ adjective or noun
nos·tal·gi·cal·ly \-ji-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
nos·tal·gist \-jist\ noun
Origin: New Latin, from Greek nostos return home + New Latin -algia; akin to Greek neisthai to return, Old English genesan to survive, Sanskrit nasate he approaches.
First use: 1756

178

Rife

rife\ˈrīf\
adjective
: very common and often bad or unpleasant
Full Definition
1 : prevalent especially to an increasing degree
2 : abundant, common
3 : copiously supplied : abounding — usually used with with
rife adverb
rife·ly adverb
Examples
She visited a country where malaria was rife.
Speculation about who would be fired ran rife for weeks.
The school was rife with rumors.
Origin: Middle English ryfe, from Old English rȳfe; akin to Old Norse rīfr abundant.
First use: 12th century
Synonyms: abounding, abundant, awash, flush, fraught, lousy, replete, swarming, teeming, thick, thronging