Analogous words IV Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Analogous words IV Deck (100):
1

dismal
dreary
bleak
gloomy
cheerless
desolate

mean devoid of cheer or comfort.
dismal indicates extreme and utterly depressing gloominess: dismal weather.
dreary, often interchangeable with dismal, emphasizes discouragement resulting from sustained dullness or futility: a dreary job.
bleak suggests chill, dull, and barren characteristics that utterly dishearten: the bleak years of the depression.
gloomy often suggests lack of hope or promise: gloomy war news.
cheerless stresses absence of anything cheering: a drab and cheerless office.
desolate adds an element of utter remoteness or lack of human contact to any already disheartening aspect: a desolate outpost.

2

solitude
isolation
seclusion

mean the state of one who is alone.
solitude may imply a condition of being apart from all human beings or of being cut off by wish or circumstances from one's usual associates: a few quiet hours of solitude.
isolation stresses detachment from others often involuntarily: the isolation of the village in winter.
seclusion suggests a shutting away or keeping apart from others often connoting deliberate withdrawal from the world or retirement to a quiet life: lived in pastoral seclusion.

3

eager
avid
keen
anxious
athirst

mean moved by a strong and urgent desire or interest.
eager implies ardor and enthusiasm and sometimes impatience at delay or restraint: eager to get started.
avid adds to eager the implication of insatiability or greed: avid for new thrills.
keen suggests intensity of interest and quick responsiveness in action: keen on the latest fashions.
anxious emphasizes fear of frustration or failure or disappointment: anxious not to make a social blunder.
athirst stresses yearning but not necessarily readiness for action: athirst for adventure.

4

stick
adhere
cohere
cling
cleave

mean to become closely attached.
stick implies attachment by affixing or by being glued together: couldn't get the label to stick.
adhere is often interchangeable with stick but sometimes implies a growing together: antibodies adhering to a virus.
cohere suggests a sticking together of parts so that they form a unified mass:'eggs will make the mixture cohere.
cling implies attachment by hanging on with arms or tendrils: clinging to a capsized boat.
cleave stresses strength of attachment: the wet shirt cleaved to his back.

5

abandon
desert
forsake

mean to leave without intending to return.
abandon suggests that the thing or person left may be helpless without protection: abandoned children.
desert implies that the object left may be weakened but not destroyed by one's absence: a deserted town.
forsake suggests an action more likely to bring impoverishment or bereavement to that which is forsaken than its exposure to physical dangers: a forsaken lover.

6

intimidate
cow
bulldoze
bully
browbeat

mean to frighten into submission.
intimidate implies inducing fear or a sense of inferiority into another: intimidated by so many other bright freshmen.
cow implies reduction to a state where the spirit is broken or all courage is lost: not at all cowed by the odds against making it in show business.
bulldoze implies an intimidating or an overcoming of resistance usually by urgings, demands, or threats: bulldozed the city council into approving the plan.
bully implies intimidation through threats, insults, or aggressive behavior: bullied into giving up their lunch money.
browbeat implies a cowing through arrogant, scornful, or contemptuous treatment: browbeat the witness into a contradiction.

7

vicious
villainous
iniquitous
nefarious
corrupt
degenerate

mean highly reprehensible or offensive in character, nature, or conduct.
vicious may directly oppose virtuous in implying moral depravity, or may connote malignancy, cruelty, or destructive violence: a vicious gangster.
villainous applies to any evil, depraved, or vile conduct or characteristic: a villainous assault.
iniquitous implies absence of all signs of justice or fairness: an iniquitous system of taxation.
nefarious suggests flagrant breaching of time-honored laws and traditions of conduct: the nefarious rackets of organized crime.
corrupt stresses a loss of moral integrity or probity causing betrayal of principle or sworn obligations: city hall was rife with corrupt politicians.
degenerate suggests having sunk to an especially vicious or enervated condition: a degenerate regime propped up by foreign powers.

8

hard
difficult
arduous

mean demanding great exertion or effort.
hard implies the opposite of all that is easy: farming is hard work.
difficult implies the presence of obstacles to be surmounted or puzzles to be resolved and suggests the need of skill or courage: the difficult ascent of the mountain.
arduous stresses the need of laborious and persevering exertion: the arduous task of rebuilding.

9

empty
vacant
blank
void
vacuous

mean lacking contents which could or should be present.
empty suggests a complete absence of contents: an empty bucket.
vacant suggests an absence of appropriate contents or occupants: a vacant apartment.
blank stresses the absence of any significant, relieving, or intelligible features on a surface: a blank wall.
void suggests absolute emptiness as far as the mind or senses can determine: a statement void of meaning.
vacuous suggests the emptiness of a vacuum and especially the lack of intelligence or significance: a vacuous facial expression.

10

fair
just
equitable
impartial
unbiased
dispassionate
objective

mean free from favor toward either or any side.
fair implies a proper balance of conflicting interests: a fair decision.
just implies an exact following of a standard of what is right and proper: a just settlement of territorial claims.
equitable implies a less rigorous standard than just and usually suggests equal treatment of all concerned: the equitable distribution of the property.
impartial stresses an absence of favor or prejudice: an impartial third party.
unbiased implies even more strongly an absence of all prejudice: your unbiased opinion.
dispassionate suggests freedom from the influence of strong feeling and often implies cool or even cold judgment: a dispassionate summation of the facts.
objective stresses a tendency to view events or persons as apart from oneself and one's own interest or feelings: I can't be objective about my own child.

11

calm
tranquil
serene
placid
peaceful

mean quiet and free from disturbance.
calm often implies a contrast with a foregoing or nearby state of agitation or violence: the protests ended, and the streets were calm again.
tranquil suggests a very deep quietude or composure: the tranquil beauty of a formal garden.
serene stresses an unclouded and lofty tranquillity: watched the sunset of a serene summer's evening.
placid suggests an undisturbed appearance and often implies a degree of complacency: remained placid despite the criticism.
peaceful implies a state of repose in contrast with or following strife or turmoil: grown peaceful in old age.

12

keep
retain
detain
withhold
reserve

mean to hold in one's possession or under one's control.
keep may suggest a holding securely in one's possession, custody, or control: keep this while I'm gone.
retain implies continued keeping, especially against threatened seizure or forced loss: managed to retain their dignity even in poverty.
detain suggests a delay in letting go: detained them for questioning.
withhold implies restraint in letting go or a refusal to let go: withheld information from the authorities.
reserve suggests a keeping in store for future use: reserve some of your energy for the last mile.

13

keep
observe
celebrate
commemorate

mean to notice or honor a day, occasion, or deed.
keep stresses the idea of not neglecting or violating: kept the Sabbath by refraining from work.
observe suggests marking the occasion by ceremonious performance: not all holidays are observed nationally.
celebrate suggests acknowledging an occasion by festivity: traditionally celebrates Thanksgiving with a huge dinner.
commemorate suggests that an occasion is marked by observances that remind one of the origin and significance of the event: commemorate Memorial Day with the laying of wreaths.

14

defend
protect
shield
guard
safeguard

mean to keep secure from danger or against attack.
defend denotes warding off actual or threatened attack: defend the country.
protect implies the use of something (as a covering) as a bar to the admission or impact of what may attack or injure: a hard hat to protect your head.
shield suggests protective intervention in imminent danger or actual attack: shielded her eyes from the sun with her hand.
guard implies protecting with vigilance and force against expected danger: White House entrances are well guarded.
safeguard implies taking precautionary protective measures against merely possible danger: our civil liberties must be safeguarded.

15

forbid
prohibit
interdict
inhibit

mean to debar one from doing something or to order that something not be done.
forbid implies that the order is from one in authority and that obedience is expected: smoking is forbidden in the building.
prohibit suggests the issuing of laws, statutes, or regulations: prohibited the sale of liquor.
interdict implies prohibition by civil or ecclesiastical authority usually for a given time or a declared purpose: practices interdicted by the church.
inhibit implies restraints or restrictions that amount to prohibitions, not only by authority but also by the exigencies of the time or situation: conditions inhibiting the growth of free trade.

16

shake
agitate
rock
convulse

mean to move up and down or to and fro with some violence.
shake often carries a further implication of a particular purpose: shake well before using.
agitate suggests a violent and prolonged tossing or stirring: an ocean agitated by storms.
rock suggests a swinging or swaying motion resulting from violent impact or upheaval: the whole city was rocked by the explosion.
convulse suggests a violent pulling or wrenching as of a body in a paroxysm: spectators were convulsed with laughter.

17

memory
remembrance
recollection
reminiscence

mean the capacity for or the act of remembering, or the thing remembered.
memory applies both to the power of remembering and to what is remembered: gifted with a remarkable memory / that incident was now just a distant memory.
remembrance applies to the act of remembering or the fact of being remembered: any remembrance of his deceased wife was painful.
recollection adds an implication of consciously bringing back to mind often with some effort: after a moment's recollection he produced the name.
reminiscence suggests the recalling of usually pleasant incidents, experiences, or feelings from a remote past: my grandmother's reminiscences of her Iowa girlhood.

18

tire
weary
fatigue
exhaust
jade
fag

mean to make or become unable or unwilling to continue.
tire implies a draining of one's strength or patience: the long ride tired us out.
weary stresses tiring until one is unable to endure more of the same thing: wearied of the constant arguing.
fatigue suggests great lassitude from excessive strain or undue effort: fatigued by the day's chores.
exhaust implies complete draining of strength by hard exertion: shoveling snow exhausted him.
jade suggests the loss of all freshness and eagerness: appetites jaded by overindulgence.
fag implies a drooping with fatigue: shoppers all fagged out by the Christmas rush.

19

injustice
injury
wrong
grievance

mean an act that inflicts undeserved hurt.
injustice applies to any act that involves unfairness to another or violation of one's rights: the injustices suffered by the lower classes.
injury applies in law specifically to an injustice for which one may sue to recover compensation: libel constitutes a legal injury.
wrong applies also in law to any act punishable according to the criminal code; it may apply more generally to any flagrant injustice: determined to right society's wrongs.
grievance applies to a circumstance or condition that constitutes an injustice to the sufferer and gives just ground for complaint: a list of employee grievances.

20

indecorous
improper
unseemly
unbecoming
indelicate

mean not conforming to what is accepted as right, fitting, or in good taste.
indecorous suggests a violation of accepted standards of good manners: indecorous behavior.
improper applies to a broader range of transgressions of rules not only of social behavior but of ethical practice or logical procedure or prescribed method: improper use of campaign contributions.
unseemly adds a suggestion of special inappropriateness to a situation or an offensiveness to good taste: remarried with unseemly haste.
unbecoming suggests behavior or language that does not suit one's character or status: conduct unbecoming to an officer.
indelicate implies a lack of modesty or of tact or of refined perception of feeling: indelicate expressions for bodily functions.

21

civil
polite
courteous
gallant
chivalrous

mean observant of the forms required by good breeding.
civil often suggests little more than the avoidance of overt rudeness: owed the questioner a civil reply.
polite commonly implies polish of speech and manners and sometimes suggests an absence of cordiality: if you can't be pleasant, at least be polite.
courteous implies more actively considerate or dignified politeness: clerks who were unfailingly courteous to customers.
gallant and chivalrous imply courteous attentiveness especially to women.
gallant suggests spirited and dashing behavior and ornate expressions of courtesy: a gallant suitor of the old school.
chivalrous suggests high-minded and self-sacrificing behavior: a chivalrous display of duty.

22

lively
animated
vivacious
sprightly
gay

mean keenly alive and spirited.
lively suggests briskness, alertness, or energy: a lively debate on the issues.
animated applies to what is spirited and active: an animated discussion of current events.
vivacious suggests an activeness of gesture and wit, often playful or alluring: a vivacious party host.
sprightly suggests lightness and spirited vigor of manner or wit: a tuneful, sprightly musical.
gay stresses complete freedom from care and overflowing spirits: the gay spirit of Paris in the 1920s.

23

bare
naked
nude
bald
barren

mean deprived of naturally or conventionally appropriate covering.
bare implies the removal of what is additional, superfluous, ornamental, or dispensable: an apartment with bare walls.
naked suggests absence of protective or ornamental covering but may imply a state of nature, of destitution, or of defenselessness: poor half-naked children.
nude applies especially to the unclothed human figure: a nude model posing for art students.
bald implies actual or seeming absence of natural covering and may suggest a conspicuous bareness: a bald mountain peak.
barren often suggests aridity or impoverishment or sterility: barren plains.

24

law
rule
regulation
precept
statute
ordinance
canon

mean a principle governing action or procedure.
law implies imposition by a sovereign authority and the obligation of obedience on the part of all subject to that authority: obey the law.
rule applies to more restricted or specific situations: the rules of the game.
regulation implies prescription by authority in order to control an organization or system: regulations affecting nuclear power plants.
precept commonly suggests something advisory and not obligatory communicated typically through teaching: the precepts of effective writing.
statute implies a law enacted by a legislative body: a statute requiring the use of seat belts.
ordinance applies to an order governing some detail of procedure or conduct enforced by a limited authority such as a municipality: a city ordinance.
canon suggests in nonreligious use a principle or rule of behavior or procedure commonly accepted as a valid guide: the canons of good taste.

25

blameworthy
blamable
guilty
culpable

mean deserving reproach or punishment.
blameworthy and blamable apply to any degree of reprehensibility: conduct adjudged blameworthy / an accident for which no one is blamable.
guilty implies responsibility for or consciousness of crime, sin, or, at the least, grave error or misdoing: guilty of a breach of etiquette.
culpable is weaker than guilty and is likely to connote malfeasance or errors of ignorance, omission, or negligence: culpable neglect.

26

steal
pilfer
filch
purloin

mean to take from another without right or without detection.
steal may apply to any surreptitious taking of something and differs from the other terms by commonly applying to intangibles as well as material things: steal jewels / stole a look at the gifts.
pilfer implies stealing repeatedly in small amounts: pilfered from his employer.
filch adds a suggestion of snatching quickly and surreptitiously: filched an apple from the tray.
purloin stresses removing or carrying off for one's own use or purposes: printed a purloined document.

27

ensure
insure
assure
secure

mean to make a thing or person sure.
ensure insure, and assure are interchangeable in many contexts where they indicate the making certain or inevitable of an outcome, but ensure may imply a virtual guarantee: the government has ensured the safety of the refugees / while
insure sometimes stresses the taking of necessary measures beforehand: careful planning should insure the success of the party / and
assure distinctively implies the removal of doubt and suspense from a person's mind: I assure you that no harm will be done.
secure implies action taken to guard against attack or loss: sent reinforcements to secure their position.

28

extend
lengthen
prolong
protract

mean to draw out or add to so as to increase in length.
extend and
lengthen imply a drawing out in space or time but extend may also imply increase in width, scope, area, or range: extend a vacation / extend welfare services / lengthen a skirt / lengthen the workweek.
prolong suggests chiefly increase in duration especially beyond usual limits: prolonged illness.
protract adds to prolong implications of needlessness, vexation, or indefiniteness: protracted litigation.

29

mean
ignoble
abject
sordid

mean being below the normal standards of human decency and dignity.
mean suggests small-mindedness, ill temper, or cupidity: mean and petty satire.
ignoble suggests a loss or lack of some essential high quality of mind or spirit: an ignoble scramble after material possessions.
abject may imply degradation, debasement, or servility: abject poverty.
sordid is stronger than all of these in stressing physical or spiritual degradation and abjectness: a sordid story of murder and revenge.

30

pose
air
airs
affectation
mannerism

mean an adopted way of speaking or behaving.
pose implies an attitude deliberately assumed in order to impress others: her shyness was just a pose.
air may suggest natural acquirement through environment or way of life: a traveler's sophisticated air.
airs always implies artificiality and pretentiousness: snobbish airs.
affectation applies to a trick of speech or behavior that strikes the observer as insincere: the posh accent is an affectation.
mannerism applies to an acquired eccentricity that has become a habit: gesturing with a cigarette was her most noticeable mannerism.

31

fast
rapid
swift
fleet
quick
speedy
hasty
expeditious

mean moving, proceeding, or acting with celerity.
fast and rapid are very close in meaning, but fast applies particularly to the thing that moves: fast horses. / and
rapid to the movement itself: rapid current.
swift suggests great rapidity coupled with ease of movement: returned the ball with one swift stroke.
fleet adds the implication of lightness and nimbleness: fleet runners.
quick suggests promptness and the taking of little time: a quick wit.
speedy implies quickness of successful accomplishment: speedy delivery of mail / and may also suggest unusual velocity.
hasty suggests hurry and precipitousness and often connotes carelessness: a hasty inspection.
expeditious suggests efficiency together with rapidity of accomplishment: the expeditious handling of an order.

32

random
haphazard
casual

mean determined by accident rather than design.
random stresses lack of definite aim, fixed goal, or regular procedure: a random selection of books.
haphazard applies to what is done without regard for regularity or fitness or ultimate consequence: a haphazard collection of rocks.
casual suggests working or acting without deliberation, intention, or purpose: a casual collector.

33

spoil
plunder
booty
prize
loot

mean something taken from another by force or craft.
spoil, more commonly spoils, applies to what belongs by right or custom to the victor in war or political contest: the spoils of political victory.
plunder applies to what is taken not only in war but in robbery, banditry, grafting, or swindling: a bootlegger's plunder.
booty implies plunder to be shared among confederates: thieves dividing up their booty.
prize applies to spoils captured on the high seas or territorial waters of the enemy: the wartime right of seizing prizes at sea.
loot applies especially to what is taken from victims of a catastrophe: picked through the ruins for loot.

34

devote
dedicate
consecrate
hallow

mean to set apart for a special and often higher end.
devote is likely to imply compelling motives and often attachment to an objective: devoted his evenings to study.
dedicate implies solemn and exclusive devotion to a sacred or serious use or purpose: dedicated her life to medical research.
consecrate stresses investment with a solemn or sacred quality: consecrate a church to the worship of God.
hallow, often differing little from dedicate or consecrate, may distinctively imply an attribution of intrinsic sanctity: battlegrounds hallowed by the blood of patriots.

35

courage
mettle
spirit
resolution
tenacity

mean mental or moral strength to resist opposition, danger, or hardship.
courage implies firmness of mind and will in the face of danger or extreme difficulty: the courage to support unpopular causes.
mettle suggests an ingrained capacity for meeting strain or difficulty with fortitude and resilience: a challenge that will test your mettle.
spirit also suggests a quality of temperament enabling one to hold one's own or keep up one's morale when opposed or threatened: her spirit was unbroken by failure.
resolution stresses firm determination to achieve one's ends: the resolution of pioneer women.
tenacity adds to resolution implications of stubborn persistence and unwillingness to admit defeat: held to their beliefs with great tenacity.

36

occurrence
event
incident
episode
circumstance

mean something that happens or takes place.
occurrence may apply to a happening without intent, volition, or plan: an encounter that was a chance occurrence.
event usually implies an occurrence of some importance and frequently one having antecedent cause: the events following the assassination.
incident suggests an occurrence of brief duration or secondary importance: a minor wartime incident.
episode stresses the distinctiveness or apartness of an incident: a brief romantic episode in a life devoted to work.
circumstance implies a specific detail attending an action or event as part of its setting or background: couldn't recall the exact circumstances.

37

gracious
cordial
affable
genial
sociable

mean markedly pleasant and easy in social intercourse.
gracious implies courtesy and kindly consideration: the gracious award winner thanked her colleagues.
cordial stresses warmth and heartiness: our host was cordial as he greeted us.
affable implies easy approachability and readiness to respond pleasantly to conversation or requests or proposals: though wealthy, she was affable to all.
genial stresses cheerfulness and even joviality: a genial companion with a ready quip.
sociable suggests a genuine liking for the companionship of others: sociable people who enjoy entertaining.

38

deplete
drain
exhaust
impoverish
bankrupt

mean to deprive of something essential to existence or potency.
deplete implies a reduction in number or quantity so as to endanger the ability to function: depleting our natural resources.
drain implies a gradual withdrawal and ultimate deprivation of what is necessary to an existence: personal tragedy had drained him of all spirit.
exhaust stresses a complete emptying: her lecture exhausted the subject.
impoverish suggests a deprivation of something essential to richness or productiveness: impoverished soil.
bankrupt suggests impoverishment to the point of imminent collapse: war had bankrupted the nation of resources.

39

compare
contrast
collate

mean to set side by side in order to show differences and likenesses.
compare implies an aim of showing relative values or excellences by bringing out characteristic qualities whether similar or divergent: compared the convention facilities of the two cities.
contrast implies an emphasis on differences: contrasted the computerized system with the old filing cards.
collate implies minute and critical inspection in order to note points of agreement or divergence: data from districts around the country will be collated.

40

honesty
honor
integrity
probity

mean uprightness of character or action.
honesty implies a refusal to lie, steal, or deceive in any way.
honor suggests an active or anxious regard for the standards of one's profession, calling, or position.
integrity implies trustworthiness and incorruptibility to a degree that one is incapable of being false to a trust, responsibility, or pledge.
probity implies tried and proven honesty or integrity.

41

odorous
fragrant
redolent
aromatic

mean emitting and diffusing scent.
odorous applies to whatever has a strong distinctive smell whether pleasant or unpleasant: odorous cheeses should be tightly wrapped.
fragrant applies to things (as flowers or spices) with sweet or agreeable odors: a fragrant rose.
redolent applies usually to a place or thing impregnated with odors: the kitchen was redolent of garlic and tomatoes.
aromatic applies to things emitting pungent often fresh odors: an aromatic blend of tobaccos.

42

amateur
dilettante
dabbler
tyro

mean a person who follows a pursuit without attaining proficiency or professional status.
amateur often applies to one practicing an art without mastery of its essentials: a painting obviously done by an amateur. / in sports it may also suggest not so much lack of skill but avoidance of direct remuneration: remained an amateur despite lucrative offers.
dilettante may apply to the lover of an art rather than its skilled practitioner but usually implies elegant trifling in the arts and an absence of serious commitment: had no patience for dilettantes.
dabbler suggests desultory habits of work and lack of persistence: a dabbler who started novels but never finished them.
tyro implies inexperience often combined with audacity with resulting crudeness or blundering: shows talent but is still a mere tyro.

43

contain
hold
accommodate

mean to have or be capable of having within.
contain implies the actual presence of a specified substance or quantity within something: the can contains a quart of oil.
hold implies the capacity of containing or the usual or permanent function of containing or keeping: the bookcase will hold all my textbooks.
accommodate stresses holding without crowding or inconvenience: the hall can accommodate 500 people.

44

certify
attest
witness
vouch

mean to testify to the truth or genuineness of something.
certify usually applies to a written statement, especially one carrying a signature or seal: certified that the candidate had met all requirements.
attest applies to oral or written testimony usually from experts or witnesses: attested to the authenticity of the document.
witness applies to the subscribing of one's own name to a document as evidence of its genuineness: witnessed the signing of the will.
vouch applies to one who testifies as a competent authority or a reliable person: willing to vouch for her integrity.

45

ghastly
grisly
gruesome
macabre
lurid

mean horrifying and repellent in appearance or aspect.
ghastly suggests the terrifying aspects of corpses and ghosts: a ghastly accident.
grisly and gruesome suggest additionally the results of extreme violence or cruelty: an unusually grisly murder / suffered a gruesome death.
macabre implies a morbid preoccupation with the physical aspects of death: a macabre tale of premature burial.
lurid adds to gruesome the suggestion of shuddering fascination with violent death and especially with murder: the lurid details of a crime.

46

scrutinize
scan
inspect
examine

mean to look at or over.
scrutinize stresses close attention to minute detail: scrutinized the hospital bill.
scan implies a surveying from point to point often suggesting a cursory overall observation: scanned the wine list.
inspect implies scrutinizing for errors or defects: inspected my credentials.
examine suggests a scrutiny in order to determine the nature, condition, or quality of a thing: examined the specimens.

47

ravage
devastate
waste
sack
pillage
despoil

mean to lay waste by plundering or destroying.
ravage implies violent often cumulative depredation and destruction: a hurricane ravaged the coast.
devastate implies the complete ruin and desolation of a wide area: an earthquake devastated the city.
waste may imply producing the same result by a slow process rather than sudden and violent action: years of drought had wasted the area.
sack implies carrying off all valuable possessions from a place: barbarians sacked ancient Rome.
pillage implies ruthless plundering at will but without the completeness suggested by sack: settlements pillaged by Vikings.
despoil applies to looting or robbing without suggesting accompanying destruction: the Nazis despoiled the art museums.

48

misfortune
mischance
adversity
mishap

mean adverse fortune or an instance of this.
misfortune may apply to either the incident or conjunction of events that is the cause of an unhappy change of fortune or to the ensuing state of distress: never lost hope even in the depths of misfortune.
mischance applies especially to a situation involving no more than slight inconvenience or minor annoyance: took the wrong road by mischance.
adversity applies to a state of grave or persistent misfortune: had never experienced great adversity.
mishap applies to an often trivial instance of bad luck: the usual mishaps of a family vacation.

49

same
selfsame
very
identical
equivalent
equal

mean not different or not differing from one another.
same may imply and selfsame always implies that the things under consideration are one thing and not two or more things: took the same route / derived from the selfsame source.
very, like selfsame, may imply identity, or, like same, may imply likeness in kind: the very point I was trying to make.
identical may imply selfsameness or suggest absolute agreement in all details: identical results.
equivalent implies amounting to the same thing in worth or significance: two houses equivalent in market value.
equal implies being identical in value, magnitude, or some specified quality: equal shares in the business.

50

furnish
equip
outfit
appoint
accoutre

mean to supply one with what is needed.
furnish implies the provision of any or all essentials for performing a function: a sparsely furnished apartment.
equip suggests the provision of something making for efficiency in action or use: a fully equipped kitchen.
outfit implies provision of a complete list or set of articles as for a journey, an expedition, or a special occupation: outfitted the family for a ski trip.
appoint implies provision of complete and usually elegant or elaborate equipment or furnishings: a lavishly appointed apartment.
accoutre suggests the supplying of personal dress or equipment for a special activity: fully accoutred members of a polar expedition.

51

responsible
answerable
accountable
amenable
liable

mean subject to being held to account.
responsible implies holding a specific office, duty, or trust: the bureau responsible for revenue collection.
answerable suggests a relation between one having a moral or legal obligation and a court or other authority charged with oversight of its observance: an intelligence agency answerable to Congress.
accountable suggests imminence of retribution for unfulfilled trust or violated obligation: elected officials are accountable to the voters.
amenable and liable stress the fact of subjection to review, censure, or control by a designated authority under certain conditions: laws are amenable to judicial review / not liable for the debts of the former spouse.

52

quick
prompt
ready
apt

mean able to respond without delay or hesitation or indicative of such ability.
quick stresses instancy of response and is likely to connote native rather than acquired power: quick reflexes / a keen quick mind.
prompt is more likely to connote training and discipline that fits one for instant response: prompt emergency medical care.
ready suggests facility or fluency in response: backed by a pair of ready assistants.
apt stresses the possession of qualities (as intelligence, a particular talent, or a strong bent) that makes quick effective response possible: an apt student / her answer was apt and to the point.

53

smell
scent
odor
aroma

mean the quality that makes a thing perceptible to the olfactory sense.
smell implies solely the sensation without suggestion of quality or character: an odd smell permeated the room.
scent applies to the characteristic smell given off by a substance, an animal, or a plant: the scent of lilacs.
odor may imply a stronger or more readily distinguished scent or it may be equivalent to smell: a cheese with a strong odor.
aroma suggests a somewhat penetrating usually pleasant odor: the aroma of freshly ground coffee.

54

soak
saturate
drench
steep
impregnate

mean to permeate or be permeated with a liquid.
soak implies usually prolonged immersion as for softening or cleansing: soak the garment in soapy water.
saturate implies a resulting effect of complete absorption until no more liquid can be held: a saturated sponge.
drench implies a thorough wetting by something that pours down or is poured: clothes drenched by a cloudburst.
steep suggests either the extraction of an essence (as of tea leaves) by the liquid or the imparting of a quality (as a color) to the thing immersed: steep the tea for five minutes.
impregnate implies a thorough interpenetration of one thing by another: a cake strongly impregnated with brandy.

55

fragrance
perfume
scent
redolence

mean a sweet or pleasant odor. fragrance suggests the odors of flowers or other growing things: the fragrance of pine.
perfume may suggest a stronger or heavier odor: the perfume of lilacs.
scent is very close to perfume but of wider application because more neutral in connotation: scent-free soaps.
redolence implies a mixture of fragrant or pungent odors: the redolence of a forest after a rain.

56

merry
blithe
jocund
jovial
jolly

mean showing high spirits or lightheartedness.
merry suggests cheerful, joyous, uninhibited enjoyment of frolic or festivity: a merry group of revelers.
blithe suggests carefree, innocent, or even heedless gaiety: arrived late in his usual blithe way.
jocund stresses elation and exhilaration of spirits: singing, dancing, and jocund feasting.
jovial suggests the stimulation of conviviality and good fellowship: dinner put them in a jovial mood.
jolly suggests high spirits expressed in laughing, bantering, and jesting: our jolly host enlivened the party.

57

cheat
cozen
defraud
swindle

mean to get something by dishonesty or deception.
cheat suggests using trickery that escapes observation: cheated me out of a dollar.
cozen implies artful persuading or flattering to attain a thing or a purpose: always able to cozen her grandfather out of a few dollars.
defraud stresses depriving one of his or her rights and usually connotes deliberate perversion of the truth: defrauded of her inheritance by an unscrupulous lawyer.
swindle implies large-scale cheating by misrepresentation or abuse of confidence: swindled of their savings by con artists.

58

indulge
pamper
humor
spoil
baby
mollycoddle

mean to show undue favor to a person's desires and feelings.
indulge implies excessive compliance and weakness in gratifying another's or one's own desires: indulged myself with food at the slightest excuse.
pamper implies inordinate gratification of desire for luxury and comfort with consequent enervating effect: pampered by the amenities of modern living.
humor stresses a yielding to a person's moods or whims: humored him by letting him tell the story.
spoil stresses the injurious effects on character by indulging or pampering: foolish parents spoil their children.
baby suggests excessive care, attention, or solicitude: babying students by grading too easily.
mollycoddle suggests an excessive degree of care and attention to another's health or welfare: refused to mollycoddle her malingering son.

59

importance
consequence
moment
weight
significance

mean a quality or aspect having great worth or significance.
importance implies a value judgment of the superior worth or influence of something or someone: a region with no cities of importance.
consequence generally implies importance because of probable or possible effects: the style you choose is of little consequence.
moment implies conspicuous or self-evident consequence: a decision of great moment.
weight implies a judgment of the immediate relative importance of something: the argument carried no weight with the judge.
significance implies a quality or character that should mark a thing as important but that is not self-evident and may or may not be recognized: the treaty's significance.

60

sign
mark
token
note
symptom

mean a discernible indication of what is not itself directly perceptible.
sign applies to any indication to be perceived by the senses or the reason: encouraging signs for the economy.
mark suggests something impressed on or inherently characteristic of a thing often in contrast to general outward appearance: a mark of a good upbringing.
token applies to something that serves as a proof of something intangible: this gift is a token of our esteem.
note suggests a distinguishing mark or characteristic: a note of irony in her writing.
symptom suggests an outward indication of an internal change or condition: rampant crime is a symptom of that city's decay.

61

cajole
coax
soft-soap
blandish
wheedle

mean to influence or persuade by pleasing words or actions.
cajole suggests the deliberate use of flattery to persuade in the face of reluctance or reasonable objections: cajoled him into cheating on the final exam.
coax implies gentle and persistent words or actions employed to produce a desired effect: coaxed the cat out of the tree.
soft-soap refers to using smooth and somewhat insincere talk usually for personal gain: politicians soft-soaping eligible voters.
blandish implies a more open desire to win a person over by effusive praise and affectionate actions: legislators blandished with promises of support.
wheedle suggests more strongly than cajole the use of seductive appeal or artful words in persuading: hucksters wheedling her life's savings out of her.

62

encomium
eulogy
panegyric
tribute
citation

mean a formal expression of praise.
encomium implies enthusiasm and warmth in praising a person or a thing: received encomiums from literary critics.
eulogy applies to a prepared speech or writing extolling the virtues and services of a person: delivered the eulogy at the funeral service.
panegyric suggests an elaborate often poetic compliment: her lyrical memoir was a panegyric to her mentor.
tribute implies deeply felt praise conveyed either through words or through a significant act: the concert was a musical tribute to the early jazz masters.
citation applies to the formal praise of a person offered in a military dispatch or in awarding an honorary degree: earned a citation for bravery.

63

fierce
ferocious
barbarous
savage
cruel

mean showing fury or malignity in looks or actions.
fierce applies to humans and animals that inspire terror because of their wild and menacing aspect or fury in attack: fierce warriors.
ferocious implies extreme fierceness and unrestrained violence and brutality: a ferocious dog.
barbarous implies a ferocity or mercilessness regarded as unworthy of civilized people: barbarous treatment of prisoners.
savage implies the absence of inhibitions restraining civilized people filled with rage, lust, or other violent passion: a savage criminal.
cruel implies indifference to suffering and even positive pleasure in inflicting it: the cruel jokes of schoolboys.

64

bearing
deportment
demeanor
mien
manner
carriage

mean the outward manifestation of personality or attitude.
bearing is the most general of these words but now usually implies characteristic posture: a woman of regal bearing.
deportment suggests actions or behavior as formed by breeding or training: your deportment was atrocious.
demeanor suggests one's attitude toward others as expressed in outward behavior: the haughty demeanor of the headwaiter.
mien is a literary term referring both to bearing and demeanor: a mien of supreme self-satisfaction.
manner implies characteristic or customary way of moving and gesturing and addressing others: the imperious manner of a man used to giving orders.
carriage applies chiefly to habitual posture in standing or walking: the kind of carriage learned at boarding school.

65

sullen
glum
morose
surly
sulky
crabbed
saturnine
gloomy

mean showing a forbidding or disagreeable mood.
sullen implies a silent ill humor and a refusal to be sociable: remained sullen amid the festivities.
glum suggests a silent dispiritedness: a glum candidate left to ponder a stunning defeat.
morose adds to glum an element of bitterness or misanthropy: morose job seekers who are inured to rejection.
surly implies gruffness and sullenness of speech or manner: a typical surly teenager.
sulky suggests childish resentment expressed in peevish sullenness: grew sulky after every spat.
crabbed applies to a forbidding morose harshness of manner: the school's notoriously crabbed headmaster.
saturnine describes a heavy forbidding aspect or suggests a bitter disposition: a saturnine cynic always finding fault.
gloomy implies a depression in mood making for seeming sullenness or glumness: a gloomy mood ushered in by bad news.

66

deplore
lament
bewail
bemoan

mean to express grief or sorrow for something.
deplore implies regret for the loss or impairment of something of value: deplores the breakdown in family values.
lament implies a profound or demonstrative expression of sorrow: lamenting the loss of their only child.
bewail and
bemoan imply sorrow, disappointment, or protest finding outlet in words or cries,
bewail commonly suggesting loudness, and
bemoan lugubriousness: fans bewailed the defeat / purists bemoaning the corruption of the language.

67

accidental
fortuitous
casual
contingent

mean not amenable to planning or prediction.
accidental stresses chance: any resemblance to actual persons is entirely accidental.
fortuitous so strongly suggests chance that it often connotes entire absence of cause: a series of fortuitous events.
casual stresses lack of real or apparent premeditation or intent: a casual encounter with a stranger.
contingent suggests possibility of happening but stresses uncertainty and dependence on other future events for existence or occurrence: the contingent effects of the proposed law.

68

sharp
keen
acute

mean having or showing alert competence and clear understanding.
sharp implies quick perception, clever resourcefulness, or sometimes questionable trickiness: sharp enough to spot a confidence game.
keen suggests quickness, enthusiasm, and a penetrating mind: a keen observer of the political scene.
acute implies a power to penetrate and may suggest subtlety and sharpness of discrimination: an acute sense of style.

69

sensuous
sensual
luxurious
voluptuous

mean relating to or providing pleasure through gratification of the senses.
sensuous implies gratification of the senses for the sake of aesthetic pleasure: the sensuous delights of great music.
sensual tends to imply the gratification of the senses or the indulgence of the physical appetites as ends in themselves: a life devoted to sensual pleasures.
luxurious suggests the indulgence of sensuous pleasure inducing bodily ease and languor: a luxurious hotel.
voluptuous implies more strongly an abandonment especially to sensual pleasure: a voluptuous feast.

70

languid
languorous
lackadaisical
listless
spiritless

mean lacking energy or enthusiasm.
languid refers to an unwillingness or inability to exert oneself due to fatigue or physical weakness: was depressed and languid for weeks after surgery.
languorous suggests a dreamy boredom and delicacy that avoids unnecessary activity: languorous cats lying in the sun.
lackadaisical implies a carefree indifference marked by halfhearted efforts: lackadaisical college seniors pretending to study.
listless suggests a lack of interest caused by physical weakness or dissatisfied boredom: listless hospital patients / listless children flipping through picture books on a rainy day.
spiritless refers to a lack of animation or vigor that gives one's actions and words life: a spiritless recital of the poem.

71

boorish
churlish
loutish
clownish

mean uncouth in manners or appearance.
boorish implies rudeness of manner due to insensitiveness to others' feelings and unwillingness to be agreeable: a drunk's boorish behavior.
churlish suggests surliness, unresponsiveness, and ungraciousness: churlish remarks.
loutish implies bodily awkwardness together with stupidity: a loutish oaf.
clownish suggests ill-bred awkwardness, ignorance or stupidity, ungainliness, and often a propensity for absurd antics: an adolescent's clownish conduct.

72

bluff
blunt
brusque
curt
crusty
gruff

mean abrupt and unceremonious in speech and manner.
bluff connotes good-natured outspokenness and unconventionality: a bluff manner.
blunt suggests directness of expression in disregard of others' feelings: a blunt appraisal.
brusque applies to a sharpness or ungraciousness: a brusque response.
curt implies disconcerting shortness or rude conciseness: a curt command.
crusty suggests a harsh or surly manner sometimes concealing an inner kindliness: a crusty exterior.
gruff suggests a hoarse or husky speech which may imply bad temper but more often implies embarrassment or shyness: puts on a gruff pose.

73

banish
exile
deport
transport

mean to remove by authority from a state or country.
banish implies compulsory removal from a country not necessarily one's own: banished for seditious activities.
exile may imply compulsory removal or an enforced or voluntary absence from one's own country: a writer who exiled himself for political reasons.
deport implies sending out of the country an alien who has illegally entered or whose presence is judged inimical to the public welfare: illegal aliens will be deported.
transport implies sending a convicted criminal to an overseas penal colony: a convict who was transported to Australia.

74

caustic
mordant
acrid
scathing

mean stingingly incisive.
caustic suggests a biting wit: caustic comments.
mordant suggests a wit that is used with deadly effectiveness: mordant reviews of the play.
acrid implies bitterness and often malevolence: acrid invective.
scathing implies indignant attacks delivered with fierce severity: a scathing satire.

75

behave
conduct
deport
comport
acquit

mean to act or to cause oneself to do something in a certain way.
behave may apply to the meeting of a standard of what is proper or decorous: the children behaved in church.
conduct implies action or behavior that shows the extent of one's power to control or direct oneself: conducted herself with unfailing good humor.
deport implies behaving so as to show how far one conforms to conventional rules of discipline or propriety: the hero deported himself in accord with the code of chivalry.
comport suggests conduct measured by what is expected or required of one in a certain class or position: comported themselves as gentlemen.
acquit applies to action under stress that deserves praise or meets expectations: acquitted herself well in her first assignment.

76

method
mode
manner
way
fashion
system

mean the means taken or procedure followed in achieving an end.
method implies an orderly logical arrangement usually in steps: effective teaching methods.
mode implies an order or course followed by custom, tradition, or personal preference: the preferred mode of transportation.
manner is close to mode but may imply a procedure or method that is individual or distinctive: an odd manner of conducting.
way is very general and may be used for any of the preceding words: has her own way of doing things.
fashion may suggest a peculiar or characteristic way of doing something: rushing about in his typical fashion.
system suggests a fully developed or carefully formulated method often emphasizing rational orderliness: a filing system.

77

lucky
fortunate
happy
providential

mean meeting with unforeseen success.
lucky stresses the agency of chance in bringing about a favorable result: won because of a lucky bounce.
fortunate suggests being rewarded beyond one's deserts: fortunate in my investments.
happy combines the implications of lucky and fortunate with stress on being blessed: a series of happy accidents.
providential more definitely implies the help or intervention of a higher power: a providential change in the weather.

78

enmity
hostility
antipathy
antagonism
animosity
rancor
animus

mean deep-seated dislike or ill will.
enmity suggests positive hatred which may be open or concealed: an unspoken enmity.
hostility suggests an enmity showing itself in attacks or aggression: hostility between the two nations.
antipathy and antagonism imply a natural or logical basis for one's hatred or dislike,
antipathy suggesting repugnance, a desire to avoid or reject, and
antagonism suggesting a clash of temperaments leading readily to hostility: a natural antipathy for self-seekers / antagonism between the brothers.
animosity suggests intense ill will and vindictiveness that threaten to kindle hostility: animosity that led to revenge.
rancor is especially applied to bitter brooding over a wrong: rancor filled every line of his letters.
animus adds to animosity the implication of strong prejudice: objections devoid of personal animus.

79

rescue
deliver
redeem
ransom
reclaim
save

mean to set free from confinement or danger.
rescue implies freeing from imminent danger by prompt or vigorous action: rescued the crew of a sinking ship.
deliver implies release usually of a person from confinement, temptation, slavery, or suffering: delivered his people from bondage.
redeem implies releasing from bondage or penalties by giving what is demanded or necessary: job training designed to redeem school dropouts from chronic unemployment.
ransom specifically applies to buying out of captivity: tried to ransom the kidnap victim.
reclaim suggests a bringing back to a former state or condition of someone or something abandoned or debased: reclaimed long-abandoned farms.
save may replace any of the foregoing terms; it may further imply a preserving or maintaining for usefulness or continued existence: an operation that saved my life.

80

fun
jest
sport
game
play

mean action or speech that provides amusement or arouses laughter.
fun usually implies laughter or gaiety but may imply merely a lack of serious or ulterior purpose: played cards just for fun.
jest implies lack of earnestness and may suggest a hoaxing or teasing: hurt by remarks said only in jest.
sport applies especially to the arousing of laughter against someone: teasing begun in sport led to anger.
game is close to sport, and often stresses mischievous or malicious fun: made game of their poor relations.
play stresses the opposition to earnest without implying any malice or mischief: pretended to strangle his brother in play.

81

rebellion
revolution
uprising
revolt
insurrection
mutiny

mean an outbreak against authority.
rebellion implies an open formidable resistance that is often unsuccessful: open rebellion against the officers.
revolution applies to a successful rebellion resulting in a major change (as in government): a political revolution that toppled the monarchy.
uprising implies a brief, limited, and often immediately ineffective rebellion: quickly put down the uprising.
revolt and insurrection imply an armed uprising that quickly fails or succeeds: a revolt by the Young Turks that surprised party leaders / an insurrection of oppressed laborers.
mutiny applies to group insubordination or insurrection especially against naval authority: a mutiny led by the ship's cook.

82

fashion
style
mode
vogue
fad
rage
craze

mean the usage accepted by those who want to be up-to-date.
fashion is the most general term and applies to any way of dressing, behaving, writing, or performing that is favored at any one time or place: the current fashion.
style often implies a distinctive fashion adopted by people of taste: a media baron used to traveling in style.
mode suggests the fashion of the moment among those anxious to appear elegant and sophisticated: slim bodies are the mode at this resort.
vogue stresses the wide acceptance of a fashion: short skirts are back in vogue.
fad suggests caprice in taking up or in dropping a fashion: last year's fad is over.
rage and craze stress intense enthusiasm in adopting a fad: Cajun food was the rage nearly everywhere for a time / crossword puzzles once seemed just a passing craze but have lasted.

83

weird
eerie
uncanny

mean mysteriously strange or fantastic.
weird may imply an unearthly or supernatural strangeness or it may stress queerness or oddness: weird creatures from another world.
eerie suggests an uneasy or fearful consciousness that mysterious and malign powers are at work: an eerie calm preceded the bombing raid.
uncanny implies disquieting strangeness or mysteriousness: an uncanny resemblance between total strangers.

84

brutal
brutish
bestial
feral

mean characteristic of an animal in nature, action, or instinct.
brutal applies to people, their acts, or their words and suggests a lack of intelligence, feeling, or humanity: a senseless and brutal war.
brutish stresses likeness to an animal in low intelligence, in base appetites, and in behavior based on instinct: brutish stupidity.
bestial suggests a state of degradation unworthy of humans and fit only for beasts: bestial depravity.
feral suggests the savagery or ferocity of wild animals: the struggle to survive unleashed their feral impulses.

85

awkward
clumsy
maladroit
inept
gauche

mean not marked by ease (as of performance, movement, or social conduct).
awkward is widely applicable and may suggest unhandiness, inconvenience, lack of muscular control, embarrassment, or lack of tact: periods of awkward silence.
clumsy implies stiffness and heaviness and so may connote inflexibility, unwieldiness, or lack of ordinary skill: a clumsy mechanic.
maladroit suggests a tendency to create awkward situations: a maladroit politician.
inept often implies complete failure or inadequacy: a hopelessly inept defense attorney.
gauche implies the effects of shyness, inexperience, or ill breeding: felt gauche and unsophisticated at formal parties.

86

trifle
toy
dally
flirt
coquet

mean to deal with or act toward without serious purpose.
trifle may imply playfulness, unconcern, indulgent contempt: to trifle with a lover's feelings.
toy implies acting without full attention or serious exertion of one's powers: a political novice toying with great issues.
dally suggests indulging in thoughts or plans merely as an amusement: dallying with the idea of building a boat someday.
flirt implies an interest or attention that soon passes to another object: flirted with one fashionable ism after another.
coquet implies attracting interest or admiration without serious intention: companies that coquet with environmentalism solely for public relations.

87

coarse
vulgar
gross
obscene
ribald

mean offensive to good taste or morals.
coarse implies roughness, rudeness, or crudeness of spirit, behavior, or language: found the coarse humor of coworkers offensive.
vulgar often implies boorishness or ill-breeding: a loud vulgar belch.
gross implies extreme coarseness and insensitiveness: gross eating habits.
obscene applies to anything strongly repulsive to the sense of decency and propriety especially in sexual matters: obscene language not allowed on the air.
ribald applies to what is amusingly or picturesquely vulgar or irreverent or mildly indecent: entertained the campers with ribald folk songs.

88

educe
evoke
elicit
extract
extort

mean to draw out something hidden, latent, or reserved.
educe implies the bringing out of something potential or latent: educed order out of chaos.
evoke implies a strong stimulus that arouses an emotion or an interest or recalls an image or memory: a song that evokes warm memories.
elicit usually implies some effort or skill in drawing forth a response: careful questioning elicited the truth.
extract implies the use of force or pressure in obtaining answers or information: extracted a confession from him.
extort suggests a wringing or wresting from one who resists strongly: extorted their cooperation by threatening to inform.

89

delusion
illusion
hallucination
mirage

mean something that is believed to be true or real but that is actually false or unreal.
delusion implies an inability to distinguish between what is real and what only seems to be real, often as the result of a disordered state of mind: delusions of persecution.
illusion implies a false ascribing of reality based on what one sees or imagines: an illusion of safety.
hallucination implies impressions that are the product of disordered senses, as because of mental illness or drugs: suffered from terrifying hallucinations.
mirage in its extended sense applies to an illusory vision, dream, hope, or aim: claimed a balanced budget is a mirage.

90

fasten
fix
attach
affix

mean to make something stay firmly in place.
fasten implies an action such as tying, buttoning, nailing, locking, or otherwise securing: fasten the reins to a post.
fix usually implies a driving in, implanting, or embedding: fixed the stake in the ground.
attach suggests a connecting or uniting by a bond, link, or tie in order to keep things together: attach the W-2 form here.
affix implies an imposing of one thing on another by gluing, impressing, or nailing: affix your address label here.

91

splendid
resplendent
gorgeous
glorious
sublime
superb

mean extraordinarily or transcendently impressive.
splendid implies outshining the usual or customary: the wedding was a splendid occasion.
resplendent suggests a glowing or blazing splendor: resplendent in her jewelry.
gorgeous implies a rich splendor especially in display of color: a gorgeous red dress.
glorious suggests radiance that heightens beauty or distinction: a glorious sunset.
sublime implies an exaltation or elevation almost beyond human comprehension: a vision of sublime beauty.
superb suggests an excellence reaching the highest conceivable degree: her singing was superb.

92

sophisticated
worldly-wise
blasé

mean experienced in the ways of the world.
sophisticated often implies refinement, urbanity, cleverness, and cultivation: guests at her salon were usually rich and sophisticated.
worldly-wise suggests a close and practical knowledge of the affairs and manners of society and an inclination toward materialism: a worldly-wise woman with a philosophy of personal independence.
blasé implies a lack of responsiveness to common joys as a result of a real or affected surfeit of experience and cultivation: blasé travelers who claimed to have been everywhere.

93

caprice
whim
vagary
crotchet

mean an irrational or unpredictable idea or desire.
caprice stresses lack of apparent motivation and suggests willfulness: by sheer caprice she quit her job.
whim implies a fantastic, capricious turn of mind or inclination: an odd antique that was bought on a whim.
vagary stresses the erratic, irresponsible character of the notion or desire: he had been prone to strange vagaries.
crotchet implies an eccentric opinion or preference: a serious scientist equally known for his bizarre crotchets.

94

dexterous
adroit
deft

mean ready and skilled in physical movement.
dexterous implies expertness with consequent facility and quickness in manipulation: unrolled the sleeping bag with a dexterous toss.
adroit implies dexterity but usually also stresses resourcefulness or artfulness or inventiveness: the magician's adroit response to the failure of her prop won applause.
deft emphasizes lightness, neatness, and sureness of touch or handling: a surgeon's deft manipulation of the scalpel.

95

carnal
fleshly
sensual
animal

mean having a relation to the body.
carnal may mean only this but more often connotes derogatorily an action or manifestation of a person's lower nature: a slave to carnal desires.
fleshly is less derogatory than carnal: a saint who had experienced fleshly temptations.
sensual may apply to any gratification of a bodily desire or pleasure but commonly implies sexual appetite with absence of the spiritual or intellectual: fleshpots providing sensual delights.
animal stresses the physical as distinguished from the rational nature of a person: led a mindless animal existence.

96

abuse
vituperation
invective
obloquy
billingsgate

mean vehemently expressed condemnation or disapproval.
abuse, the most general term, usually implies the anger of the speaker and stresses the harshness of the language: scathing verbal abuse.
vituperation implies fluent and sustained abuse: a torrent of vituperation.
invective implies a comparable vehemence but suggests greater verbal and rhetorical skill and may apply to a public denunciation: blistering political invective.
obloquy suggests defamation and consequent shame and disgrace: subjected to obloquy and derision.
billingsgate implies practiced fluency and variety of profane or obscene abuse: directed a stream of billingsgate at the cabdriver.

97

juncture
exigency
emergency
contingency
pinch
straits
crisis

mean a critical or crucial time or state of affairs.
juncture stresses the significant concurrence or convergence of events: an important juncture in our country's history.
exigency stresses the pressure of restrictions or urgency of demands created by a special situation: provide for exigencies.
emergency applies to a sudden unforeseen situation requiring prompt action to avoid disaster: the presence of mind needed to deal with emergencies.
contingency implies an emergency or exigency that is regarded as possible but uncertain of occurrence: contingency plans.
pinch implies urgency or pressure for action to a less intense degree than exigency or emergency: come through in a pinch.
straits applies to a troublesome situation from which escape is extremely difficult: in dire straits.
crisis applies to a juncture whose outcome will make a decisive difference: a crisis of confidence.

98

valid
sound
cogent
convincing
telling

mean having such force as to compel serious attention and usually acceptance.
valid implies being supported by objective truth or generally accepted authority: a valid reason for being absent. / a valid marriage.
sound implies a basis of flawless reasoning or of solid grounds: a sound proposal for reviving the economy.
cogent may stress either weight of sound argument and evidence or lucidity of presentation: the prosecutor's cogent summation won over the jury.
convincing suggests a power to overcome doubt, opposition, or reluctance to accept: a convincing argument for welfare reform.
telling stresses an immediate and crucial effect striking at the heart of a matter: a telling example of bureaucratic waste.

99

proficient
adept
skilled
skillful
expert

mean having great knowledge and experience in a trade or profession.
proficient implies a thorough competence derived from training and practice: proficient in translating foreign languages.
adept implies special aptitude as well as proficiency: adept at doing long division.
skilled stresses mastery of technique: a skilled surgeon.
skillful implies individual dexterity in execution or performance: skillful drivers.
expert implies extraordinary proficiency and often connotes knowledge as well as technical skill: expert in the evaluation of wines.

100

origin
source
inception
root

mean the point at which something begins its course or existence.
origin applies to the things or persons from which something is ultimately derived and often to the causes operating before the thing itself comes into being: an investigation into the origin of baseball.
source applies more often to the point where something springs into being: the source of the Nile / the source of recurrent trouble.
inception stresses the beginning of something without implying causes: the business has been a success since its inception.
root suggests a first, ultimate, or fundamental source often not easily discerned: the real root of the violence.