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Flashcards in Analogus Words Deck (87):
1

adorn
decorate
ornament
embellish
beautify
deck
garnish

mean to enhance the appearance of something by adding something unessential.
adorn implies an enhancing by something beautiful in itself: a diamond necklace adorned her neck.
decorate suggests relieving plainness or monotony by adding beauty of color or design: decorate a birthday cake.
ornament and embellish imply the adding of something extraneous, ornament stressing the heightening or setting off of the original: a white house ornamented with green shutters.
embellish often stressing the adding of superfluous or adventitious ornament: embellish a page with floral borders.
beautify adds to embellish a suggestion of counterbalancing plainness or ugliness: will beautify the grounds with flower beds.
deck implies the addition of something that contributes to gaiety, splendor, or showiness: a house all decked out for Christmas.
garnish suggests decorating with a small final touch and is used especially in referring to the serving of food: an entrée garnished with parsley.

2

afflict
try
torment
torture
rack

mean to inflict on a person something that is hard to bear.
afflict is a general term and applies to the causing of pain or suffering or of acute annoyance, embarrassment, or any distress: ills that afflict the elderly.
try suggests imposing something that strains the powers of endurance or of self-control: children often try their parents' patience.
torment suggests persecution or the repeated inflicting of suffering or annoyance: a horse tormented by flies.
torture adds the implication of causing unbearable pain or suffering: tortured by a sense of guilt.
rack stresses straining or wrenching: a body racked by pain.

3

abjure
renounce
forswear
recant
retract

mean to withdraw one's word or professed belief.
abjure implies a firm rejecting or abandoning often made under oath: abjured the errors of his former faith.
renounce may carry the meaning of disclaim or disown: renounced abstract art and turned to portrait painting.
forswear may add an implication of perjury or betrayal: I cannot forswear my principles.
recant stresses the withdrawing or denying of something professed or taught: if they recant they will be spared.
retract applies to the withdrawing of a promise, an offer, or an accusation: the newspaper had to retract the story.

5

apology
apologia
excuse
plea
pretext
alibi

mean matter offered in explanation or defense. apology usually applies to an expression of regret for a mistake or wrong with implied admission of guilt or fault and with or without reference to mitigating or extenuating circumstances: said by way of apology that he would have met them if he could.
apologia implies not admission of guilt or regret but a desire to make clear the grounds for some course, belief, or position: his speech was an apologia for his foreign policy.
excuse implies an intent to avoid or remove blame or censure: used illness as an excuse for missing the meeting.
plea stresses argument or appeal for understanding or sympathy or mercy: her usual plea that she was nearsighted.
pretext suggests subterfuge and the offering of false reasons or motives in excuse or explanation: used any pretext to get out of work.
alibi implies a desire to shift blame or evade punishment and imputes mere plausibility to the explanation: his alibi failed to stand scrutiny.

6

apparent
illusory
seeming
ostensible

mean not actually being what appearance indicates.
apparent suggests appearance to unaided senses that may or may not be borne out by more rigorous examination or greater knowledge .
illusory implies a false impression based on deceptive resemblance or faulty observation, or influenced by emotions that prevent a clear view .
seeming implies a character in the thing observed that gives it the appearance, sometimes through intent, of something else .
ostensible suggests a discrepancy between an openly declared or naturally implied aim or reason and the true one .

7

appreciate
value
prize
treasure
cherish

mean to hold in high estimation.
appreciate often connotes sufficient understanding to enjoy or admire a thing's excellence .
value implies rating a thing highly for its intrinsic worth .
prize implies taking a deep pride in something one possesses .
treasure emphasizes jealously safeguarding something considered precious .
cherish implies a special love and care for something .

8

ascribe
attribute
assign
impute
credit

mean to lay something to the account of a person or thing.
ascribe suggests an inferring or conjecturing of cause, quality, authorship: forged paintings formerly ascribed to masters.
attribute suggests less tentativeness than ascribe, less definiteness than assign: attributed to Rembrandt but possibly done by an associate.
assign implies ascribing with certainty or after deliberation: assigned the bones to the Cretaceous period.
impute suggests ascribing something that brings discredit by way of accusation or blame: tried to impute sinister motives to my actions.
credit implies ascribing a thing or especially an action to a person or other thing as its agent, source, or explanation: credited his teammates for his success.

9

ask
question
interrogate
query
inquire

mean to address a person in order to gain information.
ask implies no more than the putting of a question .
question usually suggests the asking of series of questions .
interrogate suggests formal or official systematic questioning .
query implies a desire for authoritative information or confirmation .
inquire implies a searching for facts or for truth often specifically by asking questions .

10

ask
request
solicit

mean to seek to obtain by making one's wants known.
ask implies no more than the statement of the desire .
request implies greater formality and courtesy .
solicit suggests a calling attention to one's wants or desires by public announcement or advertisement .

11

attraction
affinity
sympathy

mean the relationship existing between things or persons that are naturally or involuntarily drawn together.
attraction implies the possession by one thing of a quality that pulls another to it: felt an attraction to danger.
affinity implies a susceptibility or predisposition on the part of the one drawn: an affinity for mathematics.
sympathy implies a reciprocal or natural relation between two things that are both susceptible to the same influence: two minds in sympathy.

12

average
mean
median
norm

mean something that represents a middle point.
average is the quotient obtained by dividing the sum total of a set of figures by the number of figures: scored an average of 85 on tests.
mean may be the simple average or it may represent value midway between two extremes: a high of 70°and a low of 50°give a mean of 60°.
median applies to the value that represents the point at which there are as many instances above as there are below: average of a group of persons earning 3, 4, 5, 8, and 10 dollars an hour is 6 dollars, whereas the median is 5 dollars.
norm means the average of performance of a significantly large group, class, or grade: scores about the norm for fifth grade arithmetic.

13

bear
suffer
endure
abide
tolerate
stand

Mean to put up with something trying or painful.
bear usually implies the power to sustain without flinching or breaking: forced to bear a tragic loss.
suffer often suggests acceptance or passivity rather than courage or patience in bearing: suffering many insults.
endure implies continuing firm or resolute through trials and difficulties: endured years of rejection.
abide suggests acceptance without resistance or protest: cannot abide their rudeness.
tolerate suggests overcoming or successfully controlling an impulse to resist, avoid, or resent something injurious or distasteful: refused to tolerate such treatment.
stand emphasizes even more strongly the ability to bear without discomposure or flinching: unable to stand teasing.

14

background
setting
environment
milieu
mise-en-scène

mean the place, time, and circumstances in which something occurs.
background often refers to the circumstances or events that precede a phenomenon or development: the shocking decision was part of the background of the riots.
setting suggests looking at real-life situations in literary or dramatic terms: a militant reformer who was born into an unlikely social setting.
environment applies to all the external factors that have a formative influence on one's physical, mental, or moral development: the kind of environment that produces juvenile delinquents.
milieu applies especially to the physical and social surroundings of a person or group of persons: an intellectual milieu conducive to artistic experimentation.
mise-en-scène strongly suggests the use of properties to achieve a particular atmosphere or theatrical effect: a gothic thriller with a carefully crafted mise-en-scène.

16

boast
brag
vaunt
crow

mean to express pride in oneself or one's accomplishments.
boast often suggests ostentation and exaggeration "boasts of every trivial success" but it may imply a claiming with proper and justifiable pride "the town boasts one of the best museums in the area".
brag suggests crudity and artlessness in glorifying oneself "bragging of their exploits".
vaunt usually connotes more pomp and bombast than boast and less crudity or naïveté than brag "vaunted his country's military might".
crow usually implies exultant boasting or bragging .

17

cautious
circumspect
wary
chary

mean prudently watchful and discreet in the face of danger or risk.
cautious implies the exercise of forethought usually prompted by fear of danger: a cautious driver.
circumspect suggests less fear and stresses the surveying of all possible consequences before acting or deciding: circumspect in his business dealings.
wary emphasizes suspiciousness and alertness in watching for danger and cunning in escaping it: keeps a wary eye on the competition.
chary implies a cautious reluctance to give, act, or speak freely: chary of signing papers without having read them first.

18

continual
continuous
constant
incessant
perpetual
perennial

mean characterized by continued occurrence or recurrence.
continual often implies a close prolonged succession or recurrence .
continuous usually implies an uninterrupted flow or spatial extension .
constant implies uniform or persistent occurrence or recurrence .
incessant implies ceaseless or uninterrupted activity .
perpetual suggests unfailing repetition or lasting duration .
perennial implies enduring existence often through constant renewal
.

19

decrease
lessen
diminish
reduce
abate
dwindle

mean to grow or make less.
decrease suggests a progressive decline in size, amount, numbers, or intensity: slowly decreased the amount of pressure.
lessen suggests a decline in amount rather than in number: has been unable to lessen her debt.
diminish emphasizes a perceptible loss and implies its subtraction from a total: his visual acuity has diminished.
reduce implies a bringing down or lowering: you must reduce your caloric intake.
abate implies a reducing of something excessive or oppressive in force or amount: the storm abated.
dwindle implies progressive lessening and is applied to things growing visibly smaller: their provisions dwindled slowly.

20

concise
terse
succinct
laconic
summary
pithy
compendious

mean very brief in statement or expression.
concise suggests the removal of all that is superfluous or elaborative: a concise description.
terse implies pointed conciseness: a terse reply.
succinct implies the greatest possible compression: a succinct letter of resignation.
laconic implies brevity to the point of seeming rude, indifferent, or mysterious: an aloof and laconic stranger.
summary suggests the statement of main points with no elaboration or explanation: a summary listing of the year's main events.
pithy adds to succinct or terse the implication of richness of meaning or substance: a comedy sharpened by pithy one-liners.
compendious applies to what is at once full in scope and brief and concise in treatment: a compendious dictionary.

22

correct
accurate
exact
precise
nice
right

mean conforming to fact, standard, or truth.
correct usually implies freedom from fault or error: correct answers. / socially correct dress.
accurate implies fidelity to fact or truth attained by exercise of care: an accurate description.
exact stresses a very strict agreement with fact, standard, or truth: exact measurements.
precise adds to exact an emphasis on sharpness of definition or delimitation: precise calibration.
nice stresses great precision and delicacy of adjustment or discrimination: makes nice distinctions.
right is close to correct but has a stronger positive emphasis on conformity to fact or truth rather than mere absence of error or fault: the right thing to do.

23

correct
rectify
emend
remedy
redress
amend
reform
revise

mean to make right what is wrong.
correct implies taking action to remove errors, faults, deviations, defects: correct your spelling.
rectify implies a more essential changing to make something right, just, or properly controlled or directed: rectify a misguided policy.
emend specifically implies correction of a text or manuscript: emend a text.
remedy implies removing or making harmless a cause of trouble, harm, or evil: set out to remedy the evils of the world.
redress implies making compensation or reparation for an unfairness, injustice, or imbalance: redress past social injustices.
amend reform revise imply an improving by making corrective changes,
amend usually suggesting slight changes: amend a law,
reform implying drastic change: plans to reform the court system,
and revise suggesting a careful examination of something and the making of necessary changes: revise the schedule.

24

discompose
disquiet
disturb
perturb
agitate
upset
fluster

mean to destroy capacity for collected thought or decisive action.
discompose implies some degree of loss of self-control or self-confidence especially through emotional stress: discomposed by the loss of his beloved wife.
disquiet suggests loss of sense of security or peace of mind: the disquieting news of factories closing.
disturb implies interference with one's mental processes caused by worry, perplexity, or interruption: the discrepancy in accounts disturbed me.
perturb implies deep disturbance of mind and emotions: perturbed by her husband's strange behavior.
agitate suggests obvious external signs of nervous or emotional excitement: in his agitated state we could see he was unable to work.
upset implies the disturbance of normal or habitual functioning by disappointment, distress, or grief: the family's constant bickering upsets the youngest child.
fluster suggests bewildered agitation: his declaration of love completely flustered her.

25

desire
wish
want
crave
covet

mean to have a longing for.
desire stresses the strength of feeling and often implies strong intention or aim .
wish sometimes implies a general or transient longing especially for the unattainable .
want specifically suggests a felt need or lack .
crave stresses the force of physical appetite or emotional need .
covet implies strong envious desire .

27

demand
claim
require
exact

mean to ask or call for something as due or as necessary.
demand implies peremptoriness and insistence and often the right to make requests that are to be regarded as commands: demanded payment of the debt.
claim implies a demand for the delivery or concession of something due as one's own or one's right: claimed the right to manage his own affairs.
require suggests the imperativeness that arises from inner necessity, compulsion of law or regulation, or the exigencies of the situation: the patient requires constant attention.
exact implies not only demanding but getting what one demands: exacts absolute loyalty.

28

dismay
appall
horrify
daunt

mean to unnerve or deter by arousing fear, apprehension, or aversion.
dismay implies that one is disconcerted and at a loss as to how to deal with something: dismayed at the size of the job.
appall implies that one is faced with that which perturbs, confounds, or shocks: I am appalled by your behavior.
horrify stresses a reaction of horror or revulsion: was horrified by such wanton cruelty.
daunt suggests a cowing, disheartening, or frightening in a venture requiring courage: a cliff that would daunt the most intrepid climber.

30

embarrass
discomfit
abash
disconcert
rattle

mean to distress by confusing or confounding.
embarrass implies some influence that impedes thought, speech, or action: embarrassed to admit that she liked the movie.
discomfit implies a hampering or frustrating accompanied by confusion: hecklers discomfited the speaker.
abash presupposes some initial self-confidence that receives a sudden check, producing shyness, shame, or a feeling of inferiority: abashed by her swift and cutting retort.
disconcert implies an upsetting of equanimity or assurance producing uncertainty or hesitancy: disconcerted by finding so many in attendance.
rattle implies an agitation that impairs thought and judgment: rattled by all the television cameras.

31

disinclined
hesitant
reluctant
loath
averse

mean lacking the will or desire to do something indicated.
disinclined implies lack of taste for or inclination: disinclined to move again / disinclined for reading.
hesitant implies a holding back especially through fear or uncertainty: hesitant about asking for a date.
reluctant implies a holding back through unwillingness: a reluctant witness.
loath implies hesitancy because of conflict with one's opinions, predilections, or liking: seems loath to trust anyone.
averse implies a holding back from or avoiding because of distaste or repugnance: averse to hard work / not averse to an occasional drink.

32

despise
contemn
scorn
disdain

mean to regard as unworthy of one's notice or consideration.
despise may suggest an emotional response ranging from strong dislike to loathing .
contemn implies a vehement condemnation of a person or thing as low, vile, feeble, or ignominious .
scorn implies a ready or indignant contempt .
disdain implies an arrogant or supercilious aversion to what is regarded as unworthy .

33

fictitious
fabulous
legendary
mythical
apocryphal

mean having the nature of something imagined or invented.
fictitious implies fabrication and suggests artificiality or contrivance more than deliberate falsification or deception .
fabulous stresses the marvelous or incredible character of something without necessarily implying impossibility or actual nonexistence .
legendary suggests the elaboration of invented details and distortion of historical facts produced by popular tradition .
mythical implies a purely fanciful explanation of facts or the creation of beings and events out of the imagination .
apocryphal implies an unknown or dubious source or origin or may imply that the thing itself is dubious or inaccurate
.

34

explicit
definite
express
specific

mean perfectly clear in meaning.
explicit implies such verbal plainness and distinctness that there is no need for inference and no room for difficulty in understanding .
definite stresses precise, clear statement or arrangement that leaves no doubt or indecision .
express implies both explicitness and direct and positive utterance .
specific applies to what is precisely and fully treated in detail or particular .

35

gift
faculty
aptitude
bent
talent
genius
knack

36

excuse
condone
pardon
forgive

mean to exact neither punishment nor redress. excuse may refer to specific acts especially in social or conventional situations or the person responsible for these: excuse an interruption. / excused them for interrupting.
Often the term implies extenuating circumstances: injustice excuses strong responses.
condone implies that one overlooks without censure behavior (as dishonesty or violence) that involves a serious breach of a moral, ethical, or legal code, and the term may refer to the behavior or to the agent responsible for it: a society that condones alcohol but not narcotics.
pardon implies that one remits a penalty due for an admitted or established offense: pardon a criminal.
forgive implies that one gives up all claim to requital and to resentment or vengeful feelings: could not forgive their rudeness.

37

implement
tool
instrument
appliance
utensil

mean a relatively simple device for performing work.
implement may apply to anything necessary to perform a task .
tool suggests an implement adapted to facilitate a definite kind or stage of work and suggests the need of skill more strongly than implement .
appliance refers to a tool or instrument utilizing a power source and suggests portability or temporary attachment .
utensil applies to a device used in domestic work or some routine unskilled activity .

37

express
vent
utter
voice
broach
air

38

follow
succeed
ensue
supervene

mean to come after something or someone.
follow may apply to a coming after in time, position, or logical sequence: speeches followed the dinner
succeed implies a coming after immediately in a sequence determined by natural order, inheritance, election, or laws of rank: she succeeded her father as head of the business.
ensue commonly suggests a logical consequence or naturally expected development: after the talk a general discussion ensued.
supervene suggests the following or beginning of something unforeseen or unpredictable: unable to continue because of supervening circumstances.

39

extrinsic
extraneous
foreign
alien

mean external to a thing, its essential nature, or its original character.
extrinsic applies to what is distinctly outside the thing in question or is not contained in or derived from its essential nature: sentimental value that is extrinsic to the house's market value.
extraneous applies to what is on or comes from the outside and may or may not be capable of becoming an essential part: arguments extraneous to the issue.
foreign applies to what is so different as to be rejected or repelled or to be incapable of becoming assimilated:'techniques foreign to French cuisine.
alien is stronger than foreign in suggesting opposition, repugnance, or irreconcilability: a practice totally alien to her nature.

40

fantastic
bizarre
grotesque

mean conceived, made, or carried out without adherence to truth or reality.
fantastic may connote extravagance in conception or ingenuity of decorative invention: dreamed up fantastic rumors.
bizarre applies to the sensationally strange and implies violence of contrast or incongruity of combination: a bizarre medieval castle in the heart of a modern city.
grotesque may apply to what is conventionally ugly but artistically effective or it may connote ludicrous awkwardness or incongruity often with sinister or tragic overtones: grotesque statues on the cathedral. / though grieving, she made a grotesque attempt at a smile

41

hate
detest
abhor
abominate
loathe

mean to feel strong aversion or intense dislike for.
hate implies an emotional aversion often coupled with enmity or malice .
detest suggests violent antipathy .
abhor implies a deep often shuddering repugnance .
abominate suggests strong detestation and often moral condemnation .
loathe implies utter disgust and intolerance .

42

hamper
trammel
clog
fetter
shackle
manacle

mean to hinder or impede in moving, progressing, or acting.
hamper may imply the effect of any impeding or restraining influence: hampered the investigation by refusing to cooperate.
trammel suggests entangling by or confining within a net: rules that trammel the artist's creativity.
clog usually implies a slowing by something extraneous or encumbering: a court system clogged by frivolous suits.
fetter suggests a restraining so severe that freedom to move or progress is almost lost: a nation fettered by an antiquated class system.
shackle and manacle are stronger than fetter and suggest total loss of freedom: a mind shackled by stubborn prejudice. / a people manacled by tyranny.

43

heavy
weighty
ponderous
cumbrous
cumbersome

mean having great weight.
heavy implies that something has greater density or thickness than the average of its kind or class: a heavy child for his age.
weighty suggests having actual and not just relative weight: a load of weighty boxes.
ponderous implies having great weight because of size and massiveness with resulting great inertia: ponderous elephants in a circus parade.
cumbrous and cumbersome imply heaviness and bulkiness that make for difficulty in grasping, moving, carrying, or manipulating: wrestled with the cumbrous furniture / early cameras were cumbersome and inconvenient.

44

leaning
propensity
proclivity
penchant

45

injure
harm
hurt
damage
impair
mar

mean to affect injuriously.
injure implies the inflicting of anything detrimental to one's looks, comfort, health, or success: badly injured in an accident.
harm often stresses the inflicting of pain, suffering, or loss: careful not to harm the animals.
hurt implies inflicting a wound to the body or to the feelings: hurt by their callous remarks.
damage suggests injury that lowers value or impairs usefulness: a table damaged in shipping.
impair suggests a making less complete or efficient by deterioration or diminution: years of smoking had impaired his health.
mar applies to injury that spoils perfection (as of a surface) or causes disfigurement: the text is marred by many typos.

46

healthful
wholesome
salubrious
salutary

mean favorable to the health of mind or body.
healthful implies a positive contribution to a healthy condition: a healthful diet.
wholesome applies to what benefits, builds up, or sustains physically, mentally, or spiritually: wholesome foods / the movie is wholesome family entertainment.
salubrious applies chiefly to the helpful effects of climate or air: cool and salubrious weather.
salutary describes something corrective or beneficially effective, even though it may in itself be unpleasant: a salutary warning that resulted in increased production.

47

impassioned
passionate
ardent
fervent
fervid
perfervid

mean showing intense feeling.
impassioned implies warmth and intensity without violence and suggests fluent verbal expression: an impassioned plea for justice.
passionate implies great vehemence and often violence and wasteful diffusion of emotion: a passionate denunciation.
ardent implies an intense degree of zeal, devotion, or enthusiasm: an ardent supporter of human rights.
fervent stresses sincerity and steadiness of emotional warmth or zeal: fervent good wishes.
fervid suggests warmly and spontaneously and often feverishly expressed emotion: fervid love letters.
perfervid implies the expression of exaggerated or overwrought feelings: perfervid expressions of patriotism.

48

incline
bias
dispose
predispose

mean to influence one to have or take an attitude toward something.
incline implies a tendency to favor one of two or more actions or conclusions: I incline to agree.
bias suggests a settled and predictable leaning in one direction and connotes unfair prejudice: the experience biased him against foreigners.
dispose suggests an affecting of one's mood or temper so as to incline one toward something: her nature disposes her to trust others.
predispose implies the operation of a disposing influence well in advance of the opportunity to manifest itself: does fictional violence predispose them to accept real violence.

49

infrequent
uncommon
scarce
rare
sporadic

mean not common or abundant.
infrequent implies occurrence at wide intervals in space or time: infrequent family visits.
uncommon suggests a frequency below normal expectation: smallpox is now uncommon in many countries.
scarce implies falling short of a standard or required abundance: jobs were scarce during the Depression.
rare suggests extreme scarcity or infrequency and often implies consequent high value: rare first editions.
sporadic implies occurrence in scattered instances or isolated outbursts: sporadic cases of influenza.

50

incite
instigate
abet
foment

mean to spur to action.
incite stresses a stirring up and urging on, and may or may not imply initiating: inciting a riot.
instigate definitely implies responsibility for initiating another's action and often connotes underhandedness or evil intention: instigated a conspiracy.
abet implies both assisting and encouraging: aiding and abetting the enemy.
foment implies persistence in goading: fomenting rebellion.

51

increase
enlarge
augment
multiply

mean to make or become greater.
increase used intransitively implies progressive growth in size, amount, or intensity: his waistline increased with age.
used transitively it may imply simple not necessarily progressive addition: increased her landholdings.
enlarge implies expansion or extension that makes greater in size or capacity: enlarged the kitchen.
augment implies addition to what is already well grown or well developed: the inheritance augmented his fortune.
multiply implies increase in number by natural generation or by indefinite repetition of a process: with each attempt the problems multiplied.

52

liable
open
exposed
subject
prone
susceptible
sensitive

53

loud
stentorian
earsplitting
raucous
strident

mean marked by intensity or volume of sound.
loud applies to any volume above normal and may suggest undue vehemence or obtrusiveness .
stentorian implies great power and range .
earsplitting implies loudness that is physically discomforting .
raucous implies a loud harsh grating tone, especially of voice, and may suggest rowdiness .
strident implies a rasping discordant but insistent quality, especially of voice .

54

Native
indigenous
endemic
aboriginal

mean belonging to a locality.
native implies birth or origin in a place or region and may suggest compatibility with it .
indigenous applies to species or races and adds to native the implication of not having been introduced from elsewhere .
endemic implies being peculiar to a region .
aboriginal implies having no known race preceding in occupancy of the region

55

lean
spare
lank
lanky
gaunt
rawboned
scrawny
skinny

mean thin because of an absence of excess flesh.
lean stresses lack of fat and of curving contours: a lean racehorse.
spare suggests leanness from abstemious living or constant exercise: the gymnast's spare figure.
lank implies tallness as well as leanness: the lank legs of the heron.
lanky suggests awkwardness and loose-jointedness as well as thinness: a lanky youth, all arms and legs.
gaunt implies marked thinness or emaciation as from overwork or suffering: a prisoner's gaunt face.
rawboned suggests a large ungainly build without implying undernourishment: a rawboned farmer.
scrawny and skinny imply an extreme leanness that suggests deficient strength and vitality: a scrawny chicken / skinny street urchins.

56

mend
repair
patch
rebuild

mean to put into good order something that is injured, damaged, or defective.
mend implies making whole or sound something broken, torn, or injured .
repair applies to the fixing of more extensive damage or dilapidation .
patch implies an often temporary fixing of a hole or break with new material .
rebuild suggests making like new without completely replacing .

57

perform
execute
discharge
accomplish
achieve
effect
fulfill

mean to carry out or into effect.
perform implies action that follows established patterns or procedures or fulfills agreed-upon requirements and often connotes special skill .
execute stresses the carrying out of what exists in plan or in intent .
discharge implies execution and completion of appointed duties or tasks .
accomplish stresses the successful completion of a process rather than the means of carrying it out .
achieve adds to accomplish the implication of conquered difficulties .
effect adds to achieve an emphasis on the inherent force in the agent capable of surmounting obstacles .
fulfill implies a complete realization of ends or possibilities .

58

mix
mingle
commingle
blend
merge
coalesce
amalgamate
fuse

mean to combine into a more or less uniform whole.
mix may or may not imply loss of each element's identity: mix the salad greens/mix a drink.
mingle usually suggests that the elements are still somewhat distinguishable or separately active: fear mingled with anticipation in my mind.
commingle implies a closer or more thorough mingling: a sense of duty commingled with a fierce pride drove her.
blend implies that the elements as such disappear in the resulting mixture: blended several teas to create a balanced flavor.
merge suggests a combining in which one or more elements are lost in the whole: in his mind reality and fantasy merged.
coalesce implies an affinity in the merging elements and usually a resulting organic unity: telling details that coalesce into a striking portrait.
amalgamate implies the forming of a close union without complete loss of individual identities: refugees who were readily amalgamated into the community.
fuse stresses oneness and indissolubility of the resulting product: a building in which modernism and classicism are fused.

59

lethargy
languor
lassitude
stupor
torpor

mean physical or mental inertness.
lethargy implies such drowsiness or aversion to activity as is induced by disease, injury, or drugs: months of lethargy followed my accident.
languor suggests inertia induced by an enervating climate or illness or love: languor induced by a tropical vacation.
lassitude stresses listlessness or indifference resulting from fatigue or poor health: a depression marked by lassitude.
stupor implies a deadening of the mind and senses by shock, narcotics, or intoxicants: lapsed into an alcoholic stupor.
torpor implies a state of suspended animation as of hibernating animals but may suggest merely extreme sluggishness: a once alert mind now in a torpor.

60

innate
inborn
inbred
congenital
hereditary

mean not acquired after birth.
innate applies to qualities or characteristics that are part of one's inner essential nature .
inborn suggests a quality or tendency either actually present at birth or so marked and deep-seated as to seem so .
inbred suggests something either acquired from parents by heredity or so deeply rooted and ingrained as to seem acquired in that way .
congenital and hereditary refer to what is acquired before or at birth, the former to things acquired during fetal development and the latter to things transmitted from one's ancestors .

61

malodorous
stinking
fetid
noisome
putrid
rank
fusty
musty

mean bad-smelling.
malodorous may range from the unpleasant to the strongly offensive: malodorous fertilizers.
stinking and fetid suggest the foul or disgusting: prisoners were held in stinking cells / the fetid odor of skunk cabbage.
noisome adds a suggestion of being harmful or unwholesome as well as offensive: a stagnant, noisome sewer.
putrid implies particularly the sickening odor of decaying organic matter: the putrid smell of rotting fish.
rank suggests a strong unpleasant smell: rank cigar smoke.
fusty and musty suggest lack of fresh air and sunlight, fusty also implying prolonged uncleanliness, musty stressing the effects of dampness, mildew, or age: a fusty attic / the musty odor of a damp cellar.

62

monstrous
prodigious
tremendous
stupendous

mean extremely impressive.
monstrous implies a departure from the normal (as in size, form, or character) and often carries suggestions of deformity, ugliness, or fabulousness: the monstrous waste of the project.
prodigious suggests a marvelousness exceeding belief, usually in something felt as going far beyond a previous maximum (as of goodness, greatness, intensity, or size): made a prodigious effort and rolled the stone aside.
tremendous may imply a power to terrify or inspire awe: the tremendous roar of the cataract.
stupendous implies a power to stun or astound, usually because of size, numbers, complexity, or greatness beyond description: a stupendous volcanic eruption.

63

proud
arrogant
haughty
lordly
insolent
overbearing
supercilious
disdainful

64

old
ancient
venerable
antique
antiquated
archaic
obsolete

mean having come into existence or use in the more or less distant past.
old may apply to either actual or merely relative length of existence: old houses / an old sweater of mine.
ancient applies to occurrence, existence, or use in or survival from the distant past: ancient accounts of dragons.
venerable stresses the impressiveness and dignity of great age: the family's venerable patriarch.
antique applies to what has come down from a former or ancient time: collected antique Chippendale furniture.
antiquated implies being discredited or outmoded or otherwise inappropriate to the present time: antiquated teaching methods.
archaic implies having the character or characteristics of a much earlier time: the play used archaic language to convey a sense of period.
obsolete may apply to something regarded as no longer acceptable or useful even though it is still in existence: a computer that makes earlier models obsolete.

65

pernicious
baneful
noxious
deleterious
detrimental

mean exceedingly harmful.
pernicious implies irreparable harm done through evil or insidious corrupting or undermining: the claim that pornography has a pernicious effect on society.
baneful implies injury through poisoning or destroying: the baneful notion that discipline destroys creativity.
noxious applies to what is both offensive and injurious to the health of a body or mind: noxious chemical fumes.
deleterious applies to what has an often unsuspected harmful effect: a diet found to have deleterious effects.
detrimental implies obvious harmfulness to something specified: the detrimental effects of excessive drinking.

66

plot
intrigue
machination
conspiracy
cabal

mean a plan secretly devised to accomplish an evil or treacherous end.
plot implies careful foresight in planning a complex scheme: an assassination plot.
intrigue suggests secret underhanded maneuvering in an atmosphere of duplicity: backstairs intrigue.
machination implies a contriving of annoyances, injuries, or evils by indirect means: the machinations of a party boss.
conspiracy implies a secret agreement among several people usually involving treason or great treachery: a conspiracy to fix prices.
cabal typically applies to political intrigue involving persons of some eminence: a cabal among powerful senators.

67

puzzle
perplex
bewilder
distract
nonplus
confound
dumbfound

mean to baffle and disturb mentally.
puzzle implies existence of a problem difficult to solve: the persistent fever puzzled the doctor.
perplex adds a suggestion of worry and uncertainty especially about making a necessary decision: a behavior that perplexed her friends.
bewilder stresses a confusion of mind that hampers clear and decisive thinking: a bewildering number of possibilities.
distract implies agitation or uncertainty induced by conflicting preoccupations or interests: distracted by personal problems.
nonplus implies a bafflement that makes orderly planning or deciding impossible: the remark left us utterly nonplussed.
confound implies temporary mental paralysis caused by astonishment or profound abasement: the tragic news confounded us all.
dumbfound suggests intense but momentary confounding; often the idea of astonishment is so stressed that it becomes a near synonym of astound: was at first too dumbfounded to reply.

68

precipitate
headlong
abrupt
impetuous
sudden

mean showing undue haste or unexpectedness.
precipitate stresses lack of due deliberation and implies prematureness of action: the army's precipitate withdrawal.
headlong stresses rashness and lack of forethought: a headlong flight from arrest.
abrupt stresses curtness and a lack of warning or ceremony: an abrupt refusal.
impetuous stresses extreme impatience or impulsiveness: an impetuous lover proposing marriage.
sudden stresses unexpectedness and sharpness or violence of action: flew into a sudden rage.

69

relieve
alleviate
lighten
assuage
mitigate
allay

mean to make something less grievous.
relieve implies a lifting of enough of a burden to make it tolerable: took an aspirin to relieve the pain.
alleviate implies temporary or partial lessening of pain or distress: the lotion alleviated the itching.
lighten implies reducing a burdensome or depressing weight: good news would lighten our worries.
assuage implies softening or sweetening what is harsh or disagreeable: ocean breezes assuaged the intense heat.
mitigate suggests a moderating or countering of the effect of something violent or painful: the need to mitigate barbaric laws.
allay implies an effective calming or soothing of fears or alarms: allayed their fears.

70

regard
respect
esteem
admire

mean to recognize the worth of a person or thing.
regard is a general term that is usually qualified: he is highly regarded in the profession.
respect implies a considered evaluation or estimation: after many years they came to respect her views.
esteem implies greater warmth of feeling accompanying a high valuation: no citizen of the town was more highly esteemed.
admire suggests usually enthusiastic appreciation and often deep affection: a friend that I truly admire.

71

scold
upbraid
berate
rail
revile
vituperate

mean to reproach angrily and abusively.
scold implies rebuking in irritation or ill temper justly or unjustly .
upbraid implies censuring on definite and usually justifiable grounds .
berate suggests prolonged and often abusive scolding .
rail (at or against) stresses an unrestrained berating .
revile implies a scurrilous, abusive attack prompted by anger or hatred .
vituperate suggests a violent reviling .

72

satiate
sate
surfeit
cloy
pall
glut
gorge

mean to fill to repletion.
satiate and sate may sometimes imply only complete satisfaction but more often suggest repletion that has destroyed interest or desire: years of globe-trotting had satiated their interest in travel. / readers were sated with sensationalistic stories.
surfeit implies a nauseating repletion: surfeited themselves with junk food.
cloy stresses the disgust or boredom resulting from such surfeiting: sentimental pictures that cloy after a while.
pall emphasizes the loss of ability to stimulate interest or appetite: a life of leisure eventually begins to pall.
glut implies excess in feeding or supplying: a market glutted with diet books.
gorge suggests glutting to the point of bursting or choking: gorged themselves with chocolate.

73

show
manifest
evidence
evince
demonstrate

mean to reveal outwardly or make apparent.
show is the general term but sometimes implies that what is revealed must be gained by inference from acts, looks, or words .
manifest implies a plainer, more immediate revelation .
evidence suggests serving as proof of the actuality or existence of something .
evince implies a showing by outward marks or signs .
demonstrate implies showing by action or by display of feeling .

74

reveal
disclose
divulge
tell
betray

mean to make known what has been or should be concealed.
reveal may apply to supernatural or inspired revelation of truths beyond the range of ordinary human vision or reason: divine will as revealed in sacred writings.
disclose may imply a discovering but more often an imparting of information previously kept secret: candidates must disclose their financial assets.
divulge implies a disclosure involving some impropriety or breach of confidence: refused to divulge an anonymous source.
tell implies an imparting of necessary or useful information: told them what he had overheard.
betray implies a divulging that represents a breach of faith or an involuntary or unconscious disclosure: a blush that betrayed her embarrassment.

75

showy
pretentious
ostentatious

mean given to excessive outward display.
showy implies an imposing or striking appearance but usually suggests cheapness or poor taste - the performers' showy costumes.
pretentious implies an appearance of importance not justified by the thing's value or the person's standing - a pretentious parade of hard words.
ostentatious stresses vainglorious display or parade - the ostentatious summer homes of the rich.

76

separate
part
divide
sever
sunder
divorce

mean to become or cause to become disunited or disjointed.
separate may imply any of several causes such as dispersion, removal of one from others, or presence of an intervening thing: separated her personal life from her career.
part implies the separating of things or persons in close union or association: vowed never to part.
divide implies separating into pieces or sections by cutting or breaking: civil war divided the nation.
sever implies violence especially in the removal of a part or member: a severed limb.
sunder suggests violent rending or wrenching apart: a city sundered by racial conflict.
divorce implies separating two things that commonly interact and belong together: cannot divorce scientific research from moral responsibility.

77

sorrow
grief
anguish
woe
regret

mean distress of mind.
sorrow implies a sense of loss or a sense of guilt and remorse: a family united in sorrow upon the patriarch's death.
grief implies poignant sorrow for an immediate cause: the inexpressible grief of the bereaved parents.
anguish suggests torturing grief or dread: the anguish felt by the parents of the kidnapped child.
woe is deep or inconsolable grief or misery: cries of woe echoed throughout the bombed city.
regret implies pain caused by deep disappointment, fruitless longing, or unavailing remorse: nagging regret for missed opportunities.

78

show
exhibit
display
expose
parade
flaunt

mean to present so as to invite notice or attention.
show implies no more than enabling another to see or examine .
exhibit stresses putting forward prominently or openly .
display emphasizes putting in a position where others may see to advantage .
expose suggests bringing forth from concealment and displaying .
parade implies an ostentatious or arrogant displaying .
flaunt suggests a shameless, boastful, often offensive parading .

79

simple
foolish
silly
fatuous
asinine

mean actually or apparently deficient in intelligence.
simple implies a degree of intelligence inadequate to cope with anything complex or involving mental effort: considered people simple who had trouble with computers.
foolish implies the character of being or seeming unable to use judgment, discretion, or good sense: foolish stunts.
silly suggests failure to act as a rational being especially by ridiculous behavior: the silly antics of revelers.
fatuous implies foolishness, inanity, and disregard of reality: fatuous conspiracy theories.
asinine suggests utter and contemptible failure to use normal rationality or perception: an asinine plot.

80

swing
sway
oscillate
vibrate
fluctuate
waver
undulate

mean to move from one direction to its opposite. swing implies a movement of something attached at one end or one side: the door suddenly swung open.
sway implies a slow swinging or teetering movement: trees swaying in the breeze.
oscillate stresses a usually regular alternation of direction: an oscillating fan.
vibrate suggests the rapid oscillation of an elastic body under stress or impact: the vibrating strings of a piano.
fluctuate suggests constant irregular changes of level, intensity, or value: fluctuating interest rates.
waver stresses irregular motion suggestive of reeling or tottering: the exhausted runner wavered before collapsing.
undulate suggests a gentle wavelike motion: an undulating sea of grass.

81

swing
wave
flourish
brandish
thrash

mean to wield or cause to move to and fro or up and down.
swing implies regular or uniform movement: swing the rope back and forth.
wave usually implies smooth or continuous motion: waving the flag.
flourish suggests vigorous, ostentatious, graceful movement: flourished the winning lottery ticket.
brandish implies threatening or menacing motion: brandishing a knife.
thrash suggests vigorous, abrupt, violent movement: an infant thrashing his arms about.

82

unnerve
enervate
unman
emasculate

mean to deprive of strength or vigor and the capacity for effective action.
unnerve implies marked often temporary loss of courage, self-control, or power to act: unnerved by the near collision.
enervate suggests a gradual physical or moral weakening (as through luxury or indolence) until one is too feeble to make an effort: a nation's youth enervated by affluence and leisure.
unman implies a loss of manly vigor, fortitude, or spirit: a soldier unmanned by the terrors of battle.
emasculate stresses a depriving of characteristic force by removing something essential: an amendment that emasculates existing safeguards

83

wise
sage
sapient
judicious
prudent
sensible
sane

mean having or showing sound judgment.
wise suggests great understanding of people and of situations and unusual discernment and judgment in dealing with them: wise beyond his tender years.
sage suggests wide experience, great learning, and wisdom: the sage advice of my father.
sapient suggests great sagacity and discernment: the sapient musings of an old philosopher.
judicious stresses a capacity for reaching wise decisions or just conclusions: judicious parents using kindness and discipline in equal measure.
prudent suggests exercise of the restraint of sound practical wisdom and discretion: a prudent decision to wait out the storm.
sensible applies to action guided and restrained by good sense and rationality: a sensible woman who was not fooled by flattery.
sane stresses mental soundness, rationality, and levelheadedness: remained sane even in times of crises.

84

transient
transitory
ephemeral
momentary
fugitive
fleeting
evanescent

mean lasting or staying only a short time.
transient applies to what is actually short in its duration or stay: a hotel catering primarily to transient guests.
transitory applies to what is by its nature or essence bound to change, pass, or come to an end: fame in the movies is transitory.
ephemeral implies striking brevity of life or duration: many slang words are ephemeral.
momentary suggests coming and going quickly and therefore being merely a brief interruption of a more enduring state: my feelings of guilt were only momentary.
fugitive and fleeting imply passing so quickly as to make apprehending difficult: let a fugitive smile flit across his face / fleeting moments of joy.
evanescent suggests a quick vanishing and an airy or fragile quality: the story has an evanescent touch of whimsy that is lost in translation.

85

strong
stout
sturdy
stalwart
tough
tenacious

mean showing power to resist or to endure.
strong may imply power derived from muscular vigor, large size, structural soundness, intellectual or spiritual resources: strong arms / the defense has a strong case.
stout suggests an ability to endure stress, pain, or hard use without giving way: stout hiking boots.
sturdy implies strength derived from vigorous growth, determination of spirit, solidity of construction: a sturdy table / people of sturdy independence.
stalwart suggests an unshakable dependability: stalwart environmentalists.
tough implies great firmness and resiliency: a tough political opponent.
tenacious suggests strength in seizing, retaining, clinging to, or holding together: tenacious farmers clinging to an age-old way of life.

86

understand
comprehend
appreciate

mean to have a clear or complete idea of. understand and comprehend are very often interchangeable. understand may, however, stress the fact of having attained a firm mental grasp of something .
comprehend may stress the process of coming to grips with something intellectually .
appreciate implies a just evaluation or judgment of a thing's value or nature .

86

reprove
rebuke
reprimand
admonish
reproach
chide

mean to criticize adversely.
reprove implies an often kindly intent to correct a fault .
rebuke suggests a sharp or stern reproof .
reprimand implies a severe, formal, often public or official rebuke .
admonish suggests earnest or friendly warning and counsel .
reproach and chide suggest displeasure or disappointment expressed in mild reproof or scolding .

86

surprise
astonish
astound
amaze
flabbergast

mean to impress forcibly through unexpectedness.
surprise stresses causing an effect through being unexpected but not necessarily unusual or novel: surprised to find them at home.
astonish implies surprising so greatly as to seem incredible: a discovery that astonished the world.
astound stresses the shock of astonishment: too astounded to respond.
amaze suggests an effect of bewilderment: amazed by the immense size of the place.
flabbergast may suggest thorough astonishment and bewilderment or dismay: flabbergasted by his angry refusal.

86

vociferous
clamorous
blatant
strident
boisterous
obstreperous

mean so loud or insistent as to compel attention.
vociferous implies a vehement shouting or calling out: vociferous cries of protest and outrage.
clamorous may imply insistency as well as vociferousness in demanding or protesting: clamorous demands for prison reforms.
blatant implies an offensive bellowing or insensitive loudness: blatant rock music. / a blatant clamor for impeachment.
strident suggests harsh and discordant noise: heard the strident cry of the crow.
boisterous suggests a noisiness and turbulence due to high spirits: a boisterous crowd of party goers.
obstreperous suggests unruly and aggressive noisiness and resistance to restraint: the obstreperous demonstrators were arrested.

86

weaken
enfeeble
debilitate
undermine
sap
cripple
disable

mean to lose or cause to lose strength or vigor.
weaken may imply loss of physical strength, health, soundness, or stability or of quality, intensity, or effective power: a disease that weakens the body's defenses.
enfeeble implies an obvious and pitiable condition of weakness and helplessness: enfeebled by starvation.
debilitate suggests a less marked or more temporary impairment of strength or vitality: the debilitating effects of surgery.
undermine and sap suggest a weakening by something working surreptitiously and insidiously: a poor diet undermines your health / drugs had sapped his ability to think.
cripple implies causing a serious loss of functioning power through damaging or removing an essential part or element: crippled by arthritis.
disable suggests a usually sudden crippling or enfeebling: disabled soldiers received an immediate discharge.

86

spacious
commodious
capacious
ample

mean larger in extent or capacity than the average.
spacious implies great length and breadth: a spacious front lawn.
commodious stresses roominess and comfortableness: a commodious and airy penthouse apartment.
capacious stresses the ability to hold, contain, or retain more than the average: a capacious suitcase.
ample implies having a greater size, expanse, or amount than that deemed adequate: ample closet space.