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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (32)
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1
Q

what is the H zone?

A

the center of the sacromere where only myosin filaments are located

2
Q

What is A band?

A

corresponds with the Alignment of myosin filiments

3
Q

what is the I band

A

has both sides of the actin filiments (has to have both side) It can and will disappear at full muscle contraction when the actin and myosin crossbridge leaving only the actin of the out side of the actin

4
Q

what is the Z line?

A

the seperation between the actin.

5
Q

resting phase

A

the muscle is not being stimulated by motor neuron, calcium is in the sarcoplasmic reticulum

6
Q

troponin

A

oval thing on the actin that want calcium

7
Q

tropomyosin

A

protien lines in the actin that are attached to the troponon (oval thing that likes calcium) when troponon gets it calcium it attaches to the myosin and tropomyosin helps the cross bridge occur.

8
Q

excitation-contraction coupling phase

A

toponin decides it needs calcium, calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum then attaches to the troponin which is attached to the tropomyosin which causes the actin to attach to myosin crossbridges which causes SFT

9
Q

what dictates the force production of a muscle?

A

the number of cross bridges that are attached to actin filaments

10
Q

contraction phase

A

the energy of the muscle flexion comes from the breakdown of ATP. As the crossbrige occurs with calcium ADP is continually needed to replace ATP. The muscle keeps contracting if there is enough calcium if not it relaxes

11
Q

what is necessary for myosin cross- bridge cycling with actin filaments?

A

ATP and calcium

12
Q

recharge phase

A

as long as calcuim is availble the crossbridge keeps occuring. ATP and ATPase or also available

13
Q

sarcoplasmic reticulum

A

storing place of calcium

14
Q

relaxation phase

A

calcium goes back into the sacoplasmic reticulum so the SLT can no longer occur, myosin can no longer attach to the actin because the troponin does not have calcuium in it.

15
Q

fast twitch fibers

A

type IIa and type IIb

16
Q

slow twitch fibers

A

type 1

17
Q

type 1 fibers

A

efficient and fatigue resistant high capactity for anerobic energy supply, limitied potential for rapid force development, low anerobic power

18
Q

type II

A

inefficient and fatigable, low aerobic ower, rapid force development, high actomyosin, high anerobiv power.

19
Q

difference between type IIa and type IIx(b)

A

their aerobic oxidative energy supply
type IIa have greater capacity for aerobic metabolism than type IIb
type IIa show greater reisitance to fatigue

20
Q

motor units are composed of ?

A

muscle fibers that determine thier functional capacity

21
Q

the type of motor unit (fiber type) recruited is determined by its?

A

physiological characteristics

22
Q

distance running uses ?

A

slow twitch motor units because they are resistance to fatigue

23
Q

sacropenia

A

reduced muscle and size in older adults

24
Q

the right side of the heart pumps blood through the ?

A

lungs

25
Q

the left side of the heart pumps blood throught the ?

A

rest of the body

26
Q

what prevent the flow of blood from the ventricles back into the atria during ventricular contraction(systole)

A

the tricuspid valve and mitral valve

27
Q

what prevents backflow from the aorta and pulmonary artieries into the ventricles during ventricular relaxation(diastole)

A

aortic valve and pulmonary valve

28
Q

what is the sarcoplasm

A

the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

29
Q

what is the smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle

A

sarcomere where actin and myosin are

30
Q

what runs longitutitly throught the i band

A

z line

31
Q

the energy from the sliding filiament theory comes from ?

A

hydolosis of ATP to ADP

32
Q

what is the sequence of events during the SFT

A
  1. binding of calcium to troponin
  2. coupling the myosin cross-bridge with actin
  3. cross bridge flexion
  4. dissociation of actin and myosin
  5. recoking of the myosin cross-bridge head