Flashcards in 112 Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Defense Fundamentals Deck (75):
Chemical Sign for CBRNE
The word GAS with Yellow background with red lettering
Biological Sign for CBRNE
The word BIO with Blue background and red lettering
Radiological Sign for CBRNE
The word ATOM with White background with black lettering
Chemical Minefield for CBRNE
The words GAS MINES with Red background and yellow lettering and stripe
Purpose of M40 field protective mask
To protect the wearer from field concentrations of chemical and biological agents.
What does the M40 mask consist of?
A Filter Canister
Dual Voicemitter Assemblies
Inlet and Outlet Valves
Water Drinking System
How many CBRNE alarms are there?
What are the three CBRNE alarms?
Vocal: GAS-GAS-GAS (SAY 3 TIMES)
Visual: Arms are extended straight out to the side and the hands made into a fist. As the word GAS is said, bend the arms at the elbows so the fists are placed by the ears. (REPEAT THREE TIMES)
Percussion: Metal on Metal. (sirens, horns and alarm may be used outlined by units operating procedures.)
MOPP Ready means?
When a Marine/Sailor carries his/her mask
MOPP level 0
Marine has all if his/her MOPP gear available but is not wearing it
MOPP level 1
Over garment- Worn Opened or Closed
MOPP level 2
Over garment- Worn Opened or Closed
MOPP level 3
Over garment- Worn Opened or Closed
Mask- Worn with hood open of closed
MOPP level 4
Over garment- Worn
How long does it take the M256A1 to detect an agent?
What is M9 detector paper?
It detects the presence of chemical agents but not identify the agent. It is worn around the ankles, wrists and biceps.
What color/s will appear when the M9 paper gets contaminated?
Light Pink to Reddish brown or violent tint
What is M8 detector paper used for?
Used primarily on suspected liquid forms such as puddles, small drops, or barely visible droplets.
Do you blot or rub the M8 paper on a suspected contamination?
Nerve on M8 Paper is what series and color?
V- Dark Green
Blister on M8 Paper is what series and color?
Describe Immediate Decon
Minimizes Casualties, Save Lives, and limits spread of contamination.
Three Immediate Techniques: Skin Decon, Personnel Wipe Down, and Operator's Spray Down
Describe Operational Decon
Sustains operations, reduces the contact hazard, and limits spread of contamination to eliminate the necessity or reduce the duration of wearing MOPP gear.
Two Operational Techniques: Vehicle wash down and MOPP gear exchange
Describe Thorough Decon
Reduces or eliminates the need for individual protective clothing.
Three Thorough Techniques: Detailed troop decon, detailed equipment decon, and detailed aircraft decon
Nerve Agents work how?
Interfere with normal transmission of the nerve impulses in the parasympathetic nervous system
What are the physical characteristics of a nerve agent?
Odorless, almost colorless liquids, varying in thickness and readily able to vaporize
Signs and Symptoms if exposed to nerve vapor
Pupils will constrict (pinpoint)
Local muscular twitching where agent was absorbed
Runny nose, difficult breathing, diarrhea, vomiting, convulsions, drowsiness, coma and unconsciousness
Treatment of Nerve Agent
Three 2mg auto-injectors of Atropine
Three 600mg auto-injectors of 2-PAM CI
For medical personnel what is the required therapy for Nerve agents?
Continue to administer atropine for 15 minute until mild atropinization occurs. This is noted by tachycardia and dry mouth.
Blister Agents work how?
Primary action on the skin, producing large and painful blisters that are incapacitating.
What are the common blister agents?
Mustard (HD), Nitrogen Mustard (HN), Lewisite (L)
How long does it take for blister agents to manifest and what does it effect?
Several hours. They attack the eyes and respiratory tract, as well as the skin.
Mustard (HN) and Nitrogen Mustard (HD)
Oily, colorless, or pale yellow liquids, sparingly soluble in water.
S/S of Exposure of Mustard
Gritting feeling in the eyes, spastic blinking of the eyelids and photophobia. Burns in the sweaty areas (groin, armpits, face and neck).
How long does it take for blistering to begin for Mustard?
12 hours but can delay to 48 hours
Inhalation of mustard will cause?
Irritation of the throat, hoarseness, a cough, difficult breathing, fever and moist rales.
What is a frequent complication of Mustard?
What is the treatment for mustard poisoning?
No antidotal treatment. Remove as much of the Mustard as possible, asap.
Arsenical (an arsenic-based compound) Light to dark brown liquid that vaporizes slowly.
S/S of Exposure to Lewisite
Lewisite causes intense pain upon contact.
Treatment of Lewisite
EYES:Flushing eyes with copious amounts of water. Sodium Sulfacetamide, 30% solution, may be used to combat eye infection within 24 hours.
SYSTEMIC: British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), Dimercapol
BAL is somewhat toxic, so how much can you inject before a person has severe symptoms?
Blood agents work how?
Interfere with enzyme in the body, i.e. block oxygen transfer.
What are common blood agents?
Hydrocyanic acid (AC) and Cyanogen chloride (CK)
S/S of Exposure to Blood Agents
Either death or recovery. Violent convulsions after 20 to 30 seconds and respiratory failure with cessation of heart action within a few minutes.
Treatment of Blood Agents?
Amyl Nitrate in Crushed ampules (first aid) and IV Sodium thiosulfate solution.
What type of odor is Blood agents?
After atmosphere has been cleared of Blood agents how many amyl nitrate ampules can be used on a patient who has been exposed to a Blood agent?
No more then eight.
What is required after the initial lifesaving measures for blood agents?
What is the required dose of Sodium Thiosulfate?
100 to 200 mg/kg given over a 9-minute period.
What is the key to success to cyanide therapy?
Choking Agents work how?
They cause extensive damage to alveolar tissue, resulting in pulmonary edema.
What are common Choking Agents?
Phosgene (CG) and Chlorine (CI)
(as well as chloropicrin and diphosgene)
Colorless gas with a distinctive odor similar to new-mown hay or freshly cut grass. CG can cause damage to the eyes and throat
S/S of Exposure to Choking Agents
Watering of the Eyes, Coughing, and a feeling tightness in the chest. There will be no symptoms for 2 to 6 hours after exposure.
LATENT SYMPTOMS: Rapid, Shallow, Labored breathing. Painful cough, Cyanosis, Frothy sputum, Clammy skin, Rapid, Feeble pulse, and low pressure. Shock may develop, followed by death.
Treatment of Choking Agents
Bed rest is mandatory. Keep victims with lung edema only moderately warm and treat resulting anoxia with oxygen.
Incapacitating Agents work how?
Produce mental confusion and an inability to function intelligently.
Characteristics of the Incapacitants
High Potency (i.e. an extremely low dose is effective) and logistic feasibility
Effects produced mainly by altering or disrupting the higher regulatory activity of the CNS
Duration of action comprising hours or days, rather than momentary or transient action.
S/S of Exposure to Incapacitating Agents
First symptoms can appear in 30 minutes to several hours and may persist for days. Affected may make irrational statements and have delusions or hallucinations. C/O dizziness, muscular in coordination, dry mouth, and difficult swallowing.
3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate (BZ)
Causes delirium that may last several days. It will cause increased heart rate, pupil size and skin temperature, drowsiness, dry skin and decrease in alertness.
Treatment of BZ
Physostigmine. Not as effective if not used within the first 4 hours. It is very effective as long a treatment is continued and if premature discontinuation of therapy relapse will occur.
Riot control/harassing agents work how?
Harass enemy personnel or to discourage riot actions
What are the two classes of riot-control/harassment agents?
Lacrimators and Vomiting Agents
Lacrimators work how?
Local irritants that act primarily on the eyes.
High Concentrations- Irritate respiratory tract and the skin.
Chloracetophenone (CN) and Orthochlorobenzilidine Malanonitile (CS)
CN- Training Agent (Tear Gas)
CS- Riot Control Agent
S/S of Exposure to Lacrimators
Intense pain in the eyes with excessive tearing. Exposure seldom last over 2 hours.
Treatment of Lacrimators
Fresh Air. Change Clothes. Wash yourself.
Diphenylaminochloroarsine (Adamsite(DM)), Diphenylchloroarsine (DA) and Diphenylcyanoarsine (DC)
Dispersed as aerosols and produce effects by inhalation or by direct actions to the eyes.
S/S of Exposure to Vomiting
Strong pepper-like irritation in the upper respiratory tract, with irritation of the eyes and lacrimation. They cause violent uncontrollable sneezing, coughing, nausea, vomiting and a general feeling of malaise. Inhalation causes burning sensation in the nose and throat, hypersalivation, and rhinorrhea. Sinuses fill rapidly and cause a violent frontal headache.
Screening Smokes used for?
Obscure vision and hide target areas.
Where should screening smoke be used?
Outside. Under no circumstance should they be used inside or in closed compartments.
White phosphorus is a...
Pale, waxy solid that ignites spontaneously on contact with air to give a hot, dense, white smoke.
What must a person be covered with when WP is embedded in the skin?
Water, Wet Cloth, or Mud
What may be used as a rinse for WP?
Freshly mixed 0.5 solution of cooper sulfate