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Flashcards in 12-1 Brain CNS Blood Supply Deck (12)
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A: The _____ Artery (_____ circulation) perfuses MOST of the CEREBRUM.

It bifurcates into the ______ and ______ artery

B: What are the 3 daughter branches of this Artery?

The INTERNAL CAROTID Artery (ANTERIOR circulation) perfuses MOST of Cerebrum.

It bifurcates into..... [Anterior Cerebral a.]---->medial cortex and [middle cerebral a.]-->lateral cortex

B: Daughter branches: 1) ophthalmic artery 2) ANT Choroidal a. 3) POST communicating a.


A: The _____ system (______circulation) perfuses Brainstem, Cerebellum & Spinal Cord. It Bifurcates into ____ cerebral arteries.

B: Describe this system

C: What are the daughter branches for each of these Arteries?

The VERTEBROBASILAR system (POSTERIOR circulation) perfuses Brainstem, Cerebellum & Spinal Cord.

B: 2 Vertebral a. Join---> 1 Basilar ARtery-->Bifurcates into PCA [POST cerebral a.]


*Basilar branches = [(AICA) ANT inf. cerebellar a.] & [(SCA)SUP cerebellar a.]

**Vertebral branches = PAP! (, ASA PSA, PICA) -ANT Spinal a. -POST Spinal a. -POST inferior cerebellar a.


A: 80% of Strokes arise from occlusion in the ____ a. which is a bifurcated branch of the ______ Artery. What part of the brain is perfused by this bifurcated branch? B: What part of the Brain does the [POST cerebral a.] perfuse? [2]

80% of strokes<-----[middle cerebral a.] which is a bifurcated branch of INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY. [middle cerebral a.] perfuses lateral cortex B: [POST cerebral a.] perfuses Occipital lobe & Temporal Lobes (memory lost)


A: The Circle of Willis Interconnects the ____ and ____ circulations. How does it do this exactly?

B: How is it related to perfusion of deep cerebral structures? (2)

C: What are the Anterior/Posterior Perforated Substance?

{Circle of Willis} Interconnects ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR circulations. It forms 1. [ANT communicating a.] between the two [ANT cerebral a.] and [POST communicating a.] between [Internal carotid] and [POST cerebral a.] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B: As an Artery around brain base it gives rise to small perforating ganglion arteries via  MCA--->[lenticulostriate a. ] = diencephalon / hypothalamus / telencephalon

C: entry points of perforating a. on Brain Base


Blood Brain Barriers are formed by _____ ___ _____which use ___ junctions between ____ cells to filter blood coming from _______.

B: What are Pericyte? Where is it located (2)? 

Blood Brain Barriers are formed by [ASTROCYTE GLIAL CELLS] which use TIGHT junctions between ENDOTHELIAL cells and [ENDOTHELIAL CELL LAMINA] to "gatekeep" blood coming from from CAPILLARIES(which never make direct contact with brain tissue)

B: Pleuripotent cell that gives rise to other blood vessels and regulates endothelial cells. Located [under basal lamina] but [ON TOP OF ENDOTHELIUM]


The Brain is ___% of Body weight BUT uses ___% Oxygen!

A: metabolic: INC neuronal activity--->________ released --->[______ _______ _______ activation]--->________ ________released at feet ---> applied to vessels to ________ ________ in that area

B: How is Control of Blood Flow AUTOregulated?

C: How is Control of Blood Flow regulated neuronally?

D: What is the normal Flow of Blood and what happens when that number is low? [2]

Brain is 2% Body Weight BUT uses 25% Oxygen! -Control of Blood Flow-

A: metabolic: INC neuronal activity--->Glutamate released --->[astrocyte feet receptor activation]--->VasoDIOLATES factors released at feet ---> applied to vessels to DILATE VESSELS IN THAT AREA

B: AUTOREGULATION: Arterial & Smooth muscle cell mediated

C: neuronally: autonomic fibers innervate Cerebral vessels

D: Normally= [55 ml Blood/100 g in 1 minute]

20 ml = neurons stop electrically firing



Valveless Cerebral Veins ---(drain into)--->___________-----(drain into)-----> _____ ______ ______ + [Basilar Venous Plexus]

B: The [Basilar Venous Plexus] drains mostly ____ _____ and communicates with +_____________

C: Where does the [Cerebellum and Brainstem] draiiin their veiiiinnns? 

Valveless Cerebral Veins---(drain into)--->[DURA VENOUS SINUSES]----(drain into)----> [INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN] + [Basilar Venous Plexus]

B: [Basilar Venous Plexus] mostly drains BASE OF BRAIN and communicates with [SPINAL CORD EPIDURAL VENOUS PLEXUS]

C: [Cerebellum and BrainSTEM] drain their veins into the [GREAT VEIN OF GALEN]! (along w/Deep Veins)


Describe the 2 Major Divisions of Cranial Venous Drainage -Superficial Veins (5) vs. Deep Veins (6)

****Superficial Veins*** 1. Superficial group = Dumps INto Superior/inferior Sagittal Sinuses 2. Inferior group= empties with transverse AND cavernous sinus ---->[SUP/inf sagittal sinus]----> **[SINUS CONFLUENCE]**---->Transverse sinuses--->IJV


Deep Veins = empty into [Internal cerebral Veins] --->[GREAT VEIN OF GALEN]----->Straight Sinus---->**[SINUS CONFLUENCE]**----->Transverse sinuses ------>IJV


Which radiographic scan would you typically use to identify hemorrhages? What color will the hemorrhage be?

CT SCANS (Where BONE & BLOOD ARE WHITE) ARE good with Hemorrhages!
Hemorrhage will be WHITE AS WELL!


1) The Cranial Epidural Space contains what?
2) What's special about this space?

1) Cranial Epidural "Space" contains Arterries and Veins
2) There is NO Cranial Epidural Space physiologically


What are Emissary Veins

Vessels that connect [extracranial veins] to [Dural Sinuses]


What does the CT scan delineate? 

SubArachnoid Hemorrhage going into the Cisterns