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Flashcards in 11-24 Basic Overview Deck (17)
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Gray Mater is ____[Deep/Superficial] in the Cortex but [Deep/Superfiical] in the Spinal Cord.

B: what makes Gray Mater ...Gray?

GRay Mater is SUPERFICIAL in Cortex but Deep in the Spinal Cord

Gray Mater = Collection of Cell Bodies with "nissel" substance that contains Rough ER= Gray color


What are the 6 Categories of Neurons?

2) Which one is MOST abundant?
B: The Lateral Horn/___ gives rise to _____ Fibers which correspond with the ____/___

1. [Sensory Pseudounipolar] ---> DRG
2. Motor
3. PREganglionic autonomic
4. POSTganglionic autonomic
5. Lateral Interneuron (MOST ABUNDANT)

6. Projection neurons [relays from spinal cord to brain]
B: Lateral horn/IML gives rise to SYMPATHETIC Fibers which correspond with AG/SCGT


A: Where are True Unipolar neurons found and what's special about them?

B: Which cells can help peripheral nerves repair/regenerate? Which cells help Central nerves repair?

C: What are Microglia cells?

A: True Unipolar neurons = RETINA only! (THEY DON'T HAVE DENDRITES)

B: Schwann cells can regenerate peripheral nerves. NOTHING CAN REGENERATE CENTRAL NERVES!

C: Microglia = Glia Cells in Brain that act as WBC for Brain


A: [T or F] Oligodendrocytes can myelinate more than 1 axon at a time

B: [T or F] Cranial Nerves typically only utilize 1 nuclei each


B: FALSE! Some cranial nerves use MORE THAN 1 Nuclei! (think functional components)


A: Central Sulcus
B: Lateral Sylvian Sulcus

C: Which side of the Brain is ARtsy, EmoTiON, muSiC and CreATiVE??

A: Central Sulcus= Separates Frontal Lobe from Parietal
B: [Lateral Sylvian Sulcus] = Separates Temporal Lobe from Parietal

C: RIGhT BraiNN is CreATiVE anD ArTSY


Explain the hemisphere patterns for Speech

*Speech is only in R hemisphere for R handed people

**speech is in BOTH HEMISPHERES FOR L handed people


A: Diencephalon = ____ + ______
B: Brainstem = ____+______+______
C: Which part of the Brainstem does the [Oculomotor CN3] run out of ?

D: Name the 5 important Basal Ganglia

A: Diencephalon = Thalamus + HYPOthalamus

B: Brainstem = Midbrain + PONS + Medulla

C: [Oculomotor CN3] runs out of the Midbrain!!

1. Caudate Nucleus
2. Putamen
3. Globus Pallidus
4. Substantia Nigra
5. Subthalamic Nucleus


Explain the Corpora Quadragemini

[twins :-) ]
2 inferior colliculus = hearing


Where is the [Insula Cortex] found and what is it responsible for?

[Insula Cortex] is DEEP to [Lateral Sylvian Sulcus] tucked away in temporal lobe = plays a role with "evil" addictions such as smoking habits


A: Commissure vs. Decussation

B: Contralateral Processing:

C: Explain Why Cervical & Lumbar Regions of Spinal Cord are ENLARGED

A: Commissure = white fibers connecting 1 part of Brain with other (ex. Corpus Collosum) vs. Decussation = Crossing OVer of those fibers
B: Sensory from L arm is processed in R hemisphere!
Motor control of L arm is processed in R hemisphere!
C: Cervical & Lumbar Spinal Cord Regions are ENLARGED because there is [INC Nerve cell bodies] & [INC fibers/tracts] in order to innervate UE and LE


What are their functions?
A: SUP Temporal Gyrus

B: [Middle & inf Temporal Gyrus] (2)

A: SUP Temporal Gyrus = Auditory & SPEECH

B: [Middle & inf Temporal Gyrus]=
1. Facial Recognition
2. Perception of Moving Objects


A: In which Gyrus is the Broca's motor speech area located?


C: What is the space called located between Caudate Nucleus and Putamen and what does it do?

A: Broca's= [inf Frontal Gyrus]

B: ANT Commissure = Fiber bundle that enables CONTRALATERAL communication

C: Internal Capsule = massive white fibers tht transmit info from Cerebral CortexForebrain/Brainstem/Spinal Cord


1. Name the 3 Lobes of the Cerebellum and what types of input they each process?

2. What is the Opex

3. Crus Cerebri

1. **Cerebellum**
ºANT = Spinal Cord input
ºFlocculonodular = vestibular input
2. Opex= Part Where 4th ventricle empties out into the [spinal cord central canal]

3. Crus Cerebri = Bundle of White Fibers communicating info from Cerebral Cortex ---> [Midbrain brainstem] + Spinal Cord


A: What is the commissure that connects the two Thalamus together called?

B: What is the Septa Pelucica

A: [Mass intermedia] or [Interthalamic adhesion]

B: Septa Pelucica= VERY THIN membrane covering medial wall of Lateral Ventricles


1. Each [inhibitory Purkinjie cell] only receives ______ Climbing fiber from the ______
2. L cortex controls the __[R/L] side of the body but Cerebellum lesions are _______
3. ______[R/L] hemisphere of the Brain is important for Language Function!
4. *Parietal lobe lesions lead to what typically? Give Example

1. Each [inhibitory Purkinjie cell] only receives 1 ONE Climbing fiber from the [inf olivary nucleus]
2. L cortex controls the R side of the body but Cerebellum lesions are IPSILATERAL
3. Left hemisphere of the Brain is important for Language Function!
4. *Parietal lobe lesions—> NEGLECT of part of the body “Sometimes people don’t recognize their own limbs”


A: Facial Motor Nucleus is the ______ component and is equilavent to ______ of the Spinal Cord. It Corresponds with ______ tract for ______[involuntary/voluntary] control of Facial Expression m.

B: Stroke on R Cortex —> LEFT side ______[Upper/Lower] Facial Expression m. Paralysis. But ______[Upper/Lower] Facial Expression m. will stay intact.

C: Why is this?

A: Facial Motor Nucleus = SVE = is equilavent to [ANT Horn cells] of the Spinal Cord (Corresponds with CorticoBULBar tract for voluntary control of Facial Expression m. )

B: Stroke on R Cortex —> LEFT side LOWER Facial Expression m. But LEFT Upper Facial Expression m. will stay intact.

C: Upper face has TWO innervations (1 contra and 1 ipsi) BUT lower face only has 1 contra innervation = :-( so it’s knocked out a lot easier


Area 44 = ______

Area 22 = ______

Area 41 = ______

Hearing is ______[unilateral/Bilateral] above the cochlear nucleus

**99% of hearing comes from ______[Outer/inner] row of hair cells
What is the Other row for?

Area 44 = Broca’s

Area 22 = Wernicke’s

Area 41 = Heschel’s Gyrus / Primary Auditory Cortex

Hearing is BILATERAL above the cochlear nucleus = why it’s hard to knock out

**99% of hearing comes from inner row
Outer row = displacement sensitive so controls tectorial membrane