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Flashcards in 12-3 Brainstem Deck (28)
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1) Where does MOST of the Cranial Nerves originate from/

2) What is the Cranial Conduit?

3) Brainstem LIVES in the _____ behind the _____ Bone! What is the Floor and ROOF of this area?

4) Which Cranial Nerve originates from the [Interpeduncular Fossa] found on ____[Dorsal/Ventral] side underneath the ______ ___

1) ALL CRANIAL NERVES (except for CN1) are somehow attached or originate from the Brainstem!

2) Conduit = Brainstem Pipe that transfers info between Brain & Spinal Cord

3) Brainstem LIVES in the POST Cranial Fossa behind the Petrous Bone!
Floor of POST Cranial Fossa = Occipital & Temporal Bone
Roof of POST Cranial Fossa= [Tentorium Cerebellar Dura]

4) [Oculomotor CN3] comes out the Interpeduncular Fossa located VENTRAL side underneath mammillary body twins


A: What's special about the CLOSED medulla?

B: What are the Corpora Quadragemini? How is it related to "SLOW AIM"

C: Describe the 3 Cerebellar Peduncles and what their attached to

D: Which Cerebellar Peduncle DECUSSATES in the Caudal Midbrain?

A: The CLOSED Medulla is the part of Medulla NOT UNDER 4th Ventricle

B: [Corpora Quadragemini] are 4 Colliculi tht sit on DORSUM of Midbrain and is AKA [TECUM OF MIDBRAIN].

**SLOW = SUP colliculi talk with [Lateral geniculate] for Optic "WVision"
**AIM = Auditory system uses Inferior Colliculi which talks with [MEDIAL geniculate]
C:3 Cerebellar Peduncles
1- **SUP Cerebellar Peduncle = MOSTLY EFFERENT except [Ventral Spinocerebellar tract] and is in midbrain

2-MIDDLE cerebellar Peduncle= LARGEST, is afferent and attaches to Pons

3- inf cerebellar peduncle= afferent and attached to Medulla
D: **SUP Cerebellar Peduncle DECUSSATES inbetween [substantia nigra] of caudal MIDBRAIN ...on its way to [Red Nucleus of midbrain]


A: [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles] are on the ______[Dorsal/Ventral] Midbrain and responsible ......

B: Where does the Infundibulum Stalk sit in relation to the [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles]? What does it suspend?

C: Cerebellar Peduncles would stain ____ with myelin stain. Why?

A: [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles] are on the VENTRAL Midbrain and responsible for connecting Cerebrum with brainstem/spinal cord

B: Infundibulum Stalk hangs Between [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles] of midbrain and suspends PITUITARY GLAND ventrally

C: Cerebellar Peduncles would stain BLACK with myelin stain because they're white fibers lol


A: 4th Ventricle sits ____ Medulla and _____ Cerebellum

B: What are the 4 Major Openings of the 4th Ventricle?

A: 4th Ventricle sits ABOVE Medulla and BELOW Cerebellum

B: 4 Major Openings of the 4th Ventricle
ºObex---->spinal cord central canal inferiorly

º[Cerebral Aqueduct of Sylvius] Superiorly

ºLateral Lushka
ºMedial Magendi


A: "Pontocerebellar mossy fibers"
B: Where does these Cranial Nerves originate?




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C: Describe the Pathway of [Spinal CN11]
D: What happens when the _____ ______ ____ squishes [Oculomotor CN3] and why?

A: "Pontocerebellar mossy fibers" = Cortex fibers that travel to [Pontine Gray Nuclei] --->then contralaterally travel to [MIDDLE Cerebellar Peduncle]
B: CN origination:
ºCN3 = comes out [interpeduncular fossa] between the 2 [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncles] of the Ventral Midbrain

ºCN4= Dorsal Midbrain underneath [Corpora Quadragemini]
ºCN6= Pontemedullary junction

ºCN7,8 = Pontemedullary ANGLE

ºCN10 = Comes out behind "closed medulla" [inf. Olive Nucleus]
"Vagus was vagal & secret"

ºCN12 = Comes out IN FRONT of "closed medulla" [inf. Olive Nucleus]
C: [Spinal CN11] goes up thru Foramen Magnum and then goes back out Cranium [Jugular Foramen]
D: When the Temporal Lobe UNCUS squishes [Oculomotor CN3] ---> LATERAL GAZE! (because CN6 Abducens just takes over)


1. SUP/inf Colliculi (AKA ___ ____ or ___ __ _____) are connected to the LATERAL/medial geniculate of _____] via the ___ _____

2. What is the Facial Colliculus and where is it located?

3. Where exactly is the Pineal Gland?

1. SUP/inf Colliculi (AKA Corpora Quadragemini or TECUM OF MIDBRAIN) are connected to the LATERAL/medial geniculate of Thalamus] via the Brachium Arms
2. Facial Colliculus is BUMP behind Cerebellum formed by [Internal Genu]= Facial CN7 "bending" Over [CN6 Nucleus]
3. Pineal liked to sit in the back of his midbrain cadillac near the 3rd Ventricle and [Posterior PULVINAR Thalamic nuclei]


1) What are Mammillary Bodies? How are they associated with hippocampus? Where are they located?

2) How are they associated with Alcohol?

Mammillary bodies play a role in MEMORY -->they connect to [hippocampus] via fornix and are housed in the midbrain [interpeduncular fossa]

2) It DEGENERATES with severe alcoholism


1) Where are the Red Nucleus and Substantia Nigra located?

1) Red Nucleus and Substantia Nigra both are in the Rostral MIDBRAIN


A: How is FACIAL/HEAD Pain and Temp relayed to the _____ [4]

B: This Tract and & Nucleus can be considered the "HEAD" version of the _____ _____ and _____ Tract in Spinal Cord

C: Where are the FACIAL/HEAD Pain and Temp Nucleus located?

A: Face Pain fibers USING [Spinal Trigeminal tract of 5] descend thru [semilunar ganglion] ---> Pons (where CN5 enters/exits)

-->downward into caudal medulla --->synapse on [Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus of V]

--> 2nd order neurons go up to VPL of Thalamus --->3rd order neurons go to **Area 312 of POST central Gyrus**
B: [Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus] is the "HEAD" version of the [Nucleus Proprius] and [Spinothalamic tract] in Spinal Cord

C: [Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus] are located in lower Medulla "it looks like candy corn" with [Spinal Trigeminal Tract] lateral to it


A: MLF (Medial Longitudinal Fasciculi) are located in the ___ _____ above the __ ______.
It's Responsible for ...........

B: 4 Major Jobs of the Reticular Formation
C: Where is it located?

A: MLF (Medial Longitudinal Fasciculi) are located in the ROSTRAL MeDuLLA above the Reticular Formation = responsible for coordinating nuclei from CN3,4&6 for eye movement and head&eye movement together

B: Reticular Formation of the BRAINSTEM
1) Participates in movement control by connecting spinal cord to cerebellum
2) modulates pain transmission
3) contains autonomic reflex circuitry
4) controls arousal & and consciousness


A: What are the 4 Deep Cerebellar Nuclei?
B: How Does the Medial Lemniscus actually enter the Thalamus?

**Deep Cerebellar Nuclei **
"Fat Guys Eat Donuts"
1. Fastigal
2. Globose
3. Emboliform
4. Dentate
B: The Medial Lemniscus goes into the Thalamus UPSIDE DOWN with Feet being Lateral and arms medial into Thalamus


A: PAG (__ ___ ____) surrounds the ____ and
----> is responsible for.......
B: What causes Parkinson's Dz? (2)

C: What other structure is similar to the structure that causes Parkinson's Dz?

A: PAG (peri aqueductal gray) surrounds the cerebral aqueduct of sylveus and ----> MODULATES PAIN
B: Degeneration of [substantia nigra] (which secretes Dopamine) in Midbrain or destruction of Basal Ganglia DIRECT pathway----> Parkinson's Dz

C: Ventral Tegmental Area of Midbrain ALSO contains Dopamine --(without)----> mental illness


A: The [Locus Ceruleus] is the (blue dot special) of the ____ ____. It contains ______ and is responsible for......

B: It is considered the ____ ____ of the brain

C: What other structure does a similar job to this?

A: The [Locus Ceruleus] is the (blue dot special) of the ROSTRAL PONS. It contains NorEpi and adjust background levels of sensitivity

B: Considered as the "adrenal medulla of brain"

C: [Serotonergic Raphe nuclei] in Pons contain Serotonin but also adjust background sensitivity levels as well


A: There are 2 Key Nuclei in the basal Forebrain and Rostral Brainstem that contain AcH. What are they?

B: Destruction of these ______ pathways leads to _______

1. [Basal nucleus of Meynert]--->Cerebrum
2. Septal Nuclei ----> Hippocampus

B: Destruction of these CHOLINERGIC pathways -----> Alzheimer's Dz


What does
"[SE ..Raphe's] a [Substantial Dopey] with [blue NE's]

**[SE...Raphe's] = Raphe's Nuclei contain Serotonin

***[Substantial Dopey] = Substantial Nigra contain Dopamine

****[Locus Ceruleus] = NorEpi


1. Which Artery perfuses the LATERAL Medulla and what Parent Artery does it come from?

2. What's the Name of Dz that occurs when this Artery becomes occluded?

3. Name the Sx of this dz and what syndrome is causes?

1. The PICA (Daughter of Vertebral a.) perfuses Lateral Medulla

2. Can Cause [Lateral Medullary syndrome of Wallenberg]

3. causes ---> { Horner Syndrome }
ºContralateral Loss of [Pain&Temp] In LE

ºIpsiLateral Loss of [Pain & Temp] In HEAD


1) Where is the [Nucleus of Solitary Tract] [NST] located?

2) What is it responsible for?

1. [NST] Nucleus of Solitary Tract are in the [Medulla]

2. Taste [upper NST] & GVA Sensation [Lower NST]


Would you find CN12 on an OPEN Medulla?

CN12 is located at the Dorsal open bulge of an OPEN MEDULLA


1. CAUDAL MIDBRAIN has ______ Lemniscus with "golfball _____ ______ ball" on the tee Ventrally

2. It also contains the _____ _____ _____ decussating in a huge space

1. Lower CAUDAL MIDBRAIN has Lateral Lemniscus with "golfball [Inferior colliculi] ball" on the tee Ventrally

2. It also contains the [SUP Cerebellar Peduncle] decussating in a huge space


1. Red Nucleus
2. [inf Colliculus]
3. Nucleus Gracilis
4. Squiggly [inf Olivary nucleus]
5. [SUP Cerebellar Peduncle]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B: What are these Structures PERFUSED By?

6. Olive (2)
7. Basal Bons
8. [Middle cerebellar peduncle] (2)
9. [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncle]
10. .[inf cerebellar peduncle] AKA ___ ____

1. Red Nucleus = Rostral MIDBRAIN

2. [inf Colliculus] = caudal MIDBRAIN

3. Nucleus Gracilis = caudal medulla

4. Squiggly [inf Olivary nucleus] = Rostral medulla

5. [SUP Cerebellar Peduncle] DECUSSATION= caudal MIDBRAIN
6. Olive perfused by PICA or actual Parent Vertebral a.

7. Basal Pons perfused by Basilar a.

8. [Middle cerebellar peduncle] perfused by AICA and Basilar a.

9. [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncle] perfused by PCA {POST cerebral a.}

10 .[inf cerebellar peduncle] (AKA RESTIFORM BODY) perfused by PICA


The [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncle] of the _______ Rostrally turns into the _______ _______ and is mainly _______[ascending/descending] _______ Fibers. It connects the _______ to the _______!

The [Crus Cerebri Cerebral Peduncle] of the Micky Mouse MIDBRAIN Rostrally turn into the [INTERNAL CAPSULE] and are mainly Descending Motor Fibers. It connects Cerebrum to the Brainstem!


A: The ABDUCENS nc., ____ Genu and _______ _______ they form is located in the Caudal Pons

A: The ABDUCENS nc., Internal Genu and FACIAL COLLICULUS they form is located in the Caudal Pons


What do the Emissary veins do?

Emissary veins – connect extracranial veins with dural sinuses


SUP Colliculus is in the ROSTRAL Midbrain

SUP Colliculus is in the ____ Midbrain


There are 2 Fiber bundles that connect the
[Globus Pallidus>internal] to the Thalamus for _____[ Excitation/inhibition]. What are they?

1. Ansa Lenticularis
2. Lenticular Fasciculus

These connect [Globus Pallidus>internal] to Thalamus for INHIBITION


A: [T or F] Basal Ganglia have no major output to Lower Motor Neurons Directly!

B: Output from Cortex ----->striatum is _______ with
_______ as the neurotransmitter

C: _______ is the neurotransmitter for Inhibitory functions of the Basal Ganglia: _______ on the Thalamus

D: Thalamocortical projections are always _______[Excitatory/inhibitory] and Concerned with _______ _______

E: Striatum = _______ + _______ nc. of Basal Ganglia

A: TRUE! Influence from BG on LMNs is done INDIRECTLY via cerebral cortex

B: Output from Cortex ----->striatum is EXCITATORY with
GLUTAMATE as the neurotransmitter

C: GABA is the neurotransmitter for inhibitory functions from the BG [Globus Pallidus>internal] on the Thalamus

D: Thalamocortical projections are always excitatory and
Concerned with motor “intention”

E: Striatum = Caudate + Putamen nc. of Basal Ganglia


Basal Ganglia has Circuits of 4 ______ loops. What are they and what are they concerned with?

[Basal Ganglia Parallel loops of MOCL]

1. Motor Loop = learned movements [Direct = 5 neuron pathway vs. InDirect = 7 neuron pathway]

2. Oculomotor Loop = Voluntary SACCADES

3. [Cognitive PreFrontal] Loop = Motor “Intention” and "Planning"

4. Limbic Loop = Emotional Movements


1. [Frontal Eye Fields] is located in the ______ Cortex and responsible for ______ using ______ of the [Ascending MLF]

2. Stimulation of Left [Frontal Eye Fields] ---(leads to)----> ______[Right/Left] EYE MOVEMENT!

3. DAMAGE to Left [Frontal Eye Fields] ----> ______[Right/Left] Constant Eye Gaze

1. [Frontal Eye Fields] is located in Frontal Cortex and responsible for {NON-TRACKING Voluntary Eye movement} using PPRF of the Ascending MLF

2. Stimulation of Left [Frontal Eye Fields] ---(leads to)----> RIGHT EYE MOVEMENT!

3. Damage to Left [Frontal Eye Fields] ---->Left Constant Eye Gaze