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1

Personality

as a charecteristic patter of thinking, feeling, and behaving which is unique to each individual. Remaining consistent over time and contexts

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idiographic approach

creating detailed descriptions of a specific persons charecteristics

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nomothetic approach

examine personality inlarge groups of peop;e with the aim of making generalizations about persona;ity structure.

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personality the DJiI’mrait

a persons habitual patterns of thinking, feeling anf behaving

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barnum effect

barnum\; to believe their personalities were being measured wehrn they are not

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factor analysis

used to group items that people respond to similarly

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five factor model

a trait based theory of personality based on the finding that personality can be described using five dimensions

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honesty humility, hexaco model

a six factor theory that generallly replicates the five factors of the ffm honesty humilidty

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the dark triad

machiavellianism psychopathy and narcissism

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machiavellianism

to be manipulative and deceitful. dont respect others and are self intrested

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psychopathy

shallow emotiional responses

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right wing authoritarianism

obeying orders
supporting aggressin towards those who differ from order
believing strongly in maintiaingin ecxisting social order

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state

a temporary phyiscal or psychological engagement that inflluence behavior

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states based off what

location associatioin, activities and subjective states

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what is a behaviourist

personalities are behaviours influenced by environment which have been reinforced by consequences

behaviour is repeated when it is reinforced, and that behaviour is extinguished when it is punished.

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reciprical determinism

behavior, internal factors and external factors interacct with one another that create a personality

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social cognititve perspecitve says

behavior, environment and (personal cognitive factors, beliefs, expectancies and personal dispositions) all influence one another

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Weird vs non weid cultures

most of personality research has been done in weird countries, they do not apply to other cultures necessaril

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twin study result and adoption study

twins were similar and adopted kids together were no more similar in personality than two people off the street.

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What does this mean

most parents do not deviate from norms enough to change the personality of a child

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wi fast and slow exploring?

was genetically caused creating different personality and bravery

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big 5 works on animals?

yes

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why does personality exist

to promote survival and reproductive success

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wi evidence to support evolutionary personality

personality traits can be found in non humans

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wi humourism

all illness result in imbalmnce of humors.

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wi phrenology

personality personality charectheristics could be measured by skull measurement

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wi arousal theory of extraversion

extraversion is determined by a person's threshold for arousal

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wi ascending reticular activation system

plays a role in controlling this arousal response.

initial proposal that extraverts have a lower resting baseline of activations. ie. extraverts are chronically at a lower state of arousal. But truth is reactivity. introverts have a greater response to stimui

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wi behavioural activation system

is a go system arousing the person to pursue goals 552

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extraversion and brain

less activation in amygdala..
More reward sensitivity

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Neuroticism

: Neuroticism is associated with the
size of various brain areas, such as a smaller dorsomedial
prefrontal cortex, a smaller hippocampus, and a larger
mid-cingulate gyrus (an area right above the corpus
callosum; DeYoung et al., 2010). Each of these areas is
involved in abilities that are central to neuroticism.
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is involved
in controlling emotions (Ochsner & Gross, 2005),
the hippocampus in controlling obsessive negative
thinking (Gray & McNaughton, 2000), and the midcingulate
gyrus in detecting errors and perceiving
pain—whether physical or emotional pain (Carter
et al., 1998; Eisenberger & Lieberman, 2004). These
are the kinds of processes that defi ne highly neurotic
people. They have diffi culty controlling their emotions,
often fall prey to obsessive negative thinking, and are
highly sensitive when they make mistakes, or when
they feel pain.

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Agreeableness

People high in agreeableness show
less brain volume in an area called the left superior temporal
sulcus (DeYoung et al., 2010), which is activated
when one is interpreting another person’s actions or
intentions (Pelphrey & Morris, 2006). They also show
greater volume in an area called the posterior cingulate
cortex, which is involved in empathy and perspectivetaking
(DeYoung et al., 2010). These brain areas match
the tendency for people high in agreeableness to be
more socially attuned and to have more empathy for
others.

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Conscientiousness

People high in this trait have
larger brain volume in the middle frontal gyrus in the
left prefrontal cortex (DeYoung et al., 2010), which is
involved in working memory processes and in carrying
out actions that you have planned. These functions
are implicated in eff ective self-control, which is a key
strength of the highly conscientious person.

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Openness to Experience

Individuals high in
openness to experience have been shown to have greater
activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is
involved in creativity and intelligence, as well as other
brain systems involved in the integration of the self and
the environment (Adelstein et al., 2011). These systems
refl ect the tendencies for people high in openness to be
creative, integrative thinkers

35

id

represents a collection of basic biological drives,
including those directed toward sex and aggression

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superego

is comprised of our values and moral
standard

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ego

decison maker

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defence mechanisms

unconscious strategies
the ego uses to reduce or avoid anxiety

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fixation

becoming preoccupied with pleasure from a certain stage

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stages of psychosexual development

oral anal phalic latency genital

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projective tests

ambigious images are shown and unconcious images are projected

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thematic apperception test

which asks repondents to tell stories about ambigious pictures involving various interpresonal situations

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analytic psychology

unconcious archaty[es

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personal unconcious

vast repo of experiences and patterns absorbed through entire experimental unfolding of the persons life

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collective unconcious

is a sepereate non personal realm of unconcious that holds collective memories and mythologies of mind

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inferiority
complex

, the struggle many people have with feelings
of inferiority, which stem from experiences of helplessness and
powerlessness during childhoo

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person-centred
perspective

people are
basically good,

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self-actualization

drive to grow and fulfi ll one’s potential

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humanistic theories

free will

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cross modal matching

different sense

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habituation dishabituation

better understand what they percieve. Familizing till unintrested . dishabutation is changing it to see if intrest is regained

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Conservation

same thing even if arranged differently

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Preoperational

theory of mind