# Research Methods Flashcards

1
Q

What’s an independent variable?

A

The different conditions e.g. hot room

2
Q

What’s a dependent variable?

A

What you’re measuring e.g. how much orange juice consumed

3
Q

What’s a confounding variable?

A

Variables that may have affected the DV and IV, so we cannot be sure of the changes to the DV

4
Q

What’s an extraneous variable?

A

Third variable that co-varies with the IV that affects the DV

5
Q

What is meant by ‘operationalise’?

A

Turning abstract conceptual ideas into measurable observations

6
Q

What is primary data?

A

Original data gathered by the researcher themselves, specifically for the purpose of the investigation

7
Q

What is secondary data?

A

Data gathered by someone other than the person conducting the research - Used data that already exists

8
Q

What is meta-analysis?

A

A research strategy where instead of conducting new research with participants, the researchers examine the results of several previous studies

9
Q

What is a 1 tailed, or directional, hypothesis?

A

States direction of effect (one group will do better than the other)

10
Q

What is a 2 tailed, or non-directional, hypothesis?

A

Doesn’t state direction of effect (there will be a difference between the groups)

11
Q

What is a null hypothesis?

A

States there will be no difference between the groups

12
Q

What is random sampling?

A

Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

13
Q

What are the + and - of random sampling?

A

+ Good chance to rid of bias

• Can be time-consuming
• Might not be representative of the target population
14
Q

What is stratified sampling?

A

Dividing the target population into sub-categories, in proportion to the actual population (80% of Britain is white, thus 80% of sample is white)

15
Q

What are the + and - of stratified sampling?

A

+ Represents the target population

• Time-consuming
16
Q

What is systematic sampling?

A

Every nth number of the target population is selected

17
Q

What are the + and - of systematic sampling?

A

+ Avoids researcher bias

• Time-consuming
• Could coincidentally have particular traits within data set
18
Q

What is volunteer sampling?

A

Individuals volunteer themselves to be in the study

19
Q

What are the + and - of volunteer sampling?

A

+ Convenient
+ Ethical
- Unrepresentative of target population

20
Q

What is opportunity sampling?

A

Selecting those available to you

21
Q

What are the + and - of opportunity sampling?

A

+ Quick and convenient
- Very unrepresentative of the target population

22
Q

What is event sampling?

A

Observed every time an event occurs - decided before

23
Q

What is time sampling?

A

Observed during a set amount of time - decided before

24
Q

What is point sampling?

A

Observing and recording the behaviour which occurs at a series of given points in time - eg, meal time

25
Q

What is Repeated Measures?

A

Participants experience all conditions

26
Q

What are the + and - of repeated measures?

A

+ No participant variables
+ Requires few participants
- Practice effects - have already done 1 condition, thus 2nd will be easier
(this can be eliminated using counterbalancing - ABBA)
- Demand characteristics

27
Q

What is Independent Groups?

A

Participants only experience 1 condition

28
Q

What are the + and - of Independent Groups?

A

+ No participants with order effects
+ Cheap
+ Quick to recruit participants
- More participants needed than with repeated measures
- May be important participant variables between people that are not controlled for

29
Q

What is Matched Pairs?

A

Participant is matched with someone with similar traits - Experience 1 condition each

30
Q

What are the + and - of Matched Pairs?

A

+ Controls for individual differences
+ No difference between the people in the different conditions
- Difficult to match people
- Time-consuming
- Can be costly

31
Q

What is a questionnaire?

A

Pre-list of written questions

32
Q

What are the + and - of questionnaires?

A

+ Large samples can be questioned efficiently
+ No investigator effects
- People may not tell the truth - not valid
- Clarity of questions can pose an issue

33
Q

What is an interview?

A

Face to face questions

34
Q

What are the + and - of interviews?

A

Structured
+ Easy to replicate + Standardised format
Semi-Structured
+ Flexible + Easier to replicate than unstructured
Unstructured
+ More flexibility + Participants can express themselves
- Runs risk of being difficult to analyse

• Interviews take longer
• Increased risk of investigator effects
35
Q

What are the 3 different types of interview?

A

Structured - follows set questions
Semi-Structured - follows set questions, but allows room for other questions to be asked
Unstructured - No set questions at all - informal, like a conversation

36
Q

What are the + and - of Open Questions?

A

+ Respondent can write in their own words
- Analysis can prove difficult

37
Q

What are the + and - of Closed Questions?

A

+ Predetermined responses allows quick, quantitative data
+ More reliable data
- Less valid - can’t write in own words

38
Q

What’s a case study?

A

Gathering of detailed information concerning an individual

39
Q

What are the + and - of a case study?

A

+ Produces data rich in detail
+ Challenges theories
- Lacks external reliability
- Low population validity

40
Q

What is the meaning of reliability?

A

Refers to the consistency of research

41
Q

What is ‘internal reliability’?

A

Measures the extent of which a test or procedure is consistent within itself

42
Q

What is ‘external reliability’?

A

Measures the consistency from one occasion to the other

43
Q

What are the two ways to measure internal reliability?

A
• Inter-observer Reliability
Researchers should produce similar test results, or similar observations to each other
• Split-half Method
Compare participants’ performance on 2 halves of the test
44
Q

What are the two ways to measure external reliability?

A
• Test-Retest
Take the same test on different occasions
• Replication
Replicate the same experiment, but with different participants
45
Q

What is meant by validity?

A

Degree to which an experiment measures what it sets out to

46
Q

What is ‘internal validity’?

A

The tool is measuring what it is intending to measure

47
Q

What is ‘external validity’?

A

Findings can be generalised beyond the context of the research situation

48
Q

What are the two ways to measure internal validity?

A
• Face Validity
Does our measuring tool appear to be doing what it should?
• Concurrent Validity
New measure test scores are correlated from those from the first established valid test
49
Q

What are the two ways to measure external validity?

A
• Temporal Validity
Do our findings endure over time or are they era-dependent?
• Replication
Doing experiment again with different participants and a more real-life setting
50
Q

What are the two ways to improve validity when conducting an experiment?

A
• Single-Blind Technique
Make sure the participants don’t know the aim of the experiment
• Double-Blind Technique
Hire an experimenter to do the experiment for you, without knowing the aim, thus participants and the experimenter do not know the aim of the experiment
51
Q

What is a laboratory experiment?

A

Experiment conducted in a highly controlled environment

52
Q

What are the + and - of laboratory experiments?

A

+ Highly controlled - assume cause and effect
+ Replicable
- Highly artificial - lacks ecological validity
- Demand characteristics
- Can have ethical issues
- Lacks mundane realism

53
Q

What is a natural experiment?

A

Experiment that isn’t deliberately manipulated by the researcher, but occurs naturally

54
Q

What are the + and - of natural experiments?

A

+ High ecological validity
+ Reduced demand characteristics - unaware of experiment
- Can’t assume cause and effect
- Events may happen rarely

55
Q

What is a field experiment?

A

Experiment that is performed in a natural setting
IV is manipulated by researcher

56
Q

What are the + and - of field experiments?

A

+ Good external validity
+ Reduced demand characteristics
+ High mundane realism
- Less control
- Hard to replicate
- Can have ethical issues

57
Q

What is a quasi experiment?

A

Experiment where IV isn’t manipulated by anyone

58
Q

What are the + and - of quasi experiments?

A

+ Controlled conditions
+ Replicable
- Can’t assume cause and effect - confounding variables
- Cannot randomly allocate

59
Q

What are the different types of naturalistic observations?

A

Controlled Observations - Carried out in a lab
Participant Observations - Psychologist will join in the group
Non-Participant Observations - Researcher remains outside of the group
Covert Observations - P’s behaviour is watched and recorded without knowing
Overt Observations - P’s behaviour is watched and recorded and they know

60
Q

What are the + and - of controlled observations?

A

+ More control over variables - high internal validity
+ Easy to replicate
+ Avoids ethical problems (usually)
- Awareness of being observed - demand characteristics
- Low ecological validity - place of observation is artificial

61
Q

What are the + and - of participant observations?

A

+ High ecological validity
+ Rich in detail
- May be ethical issues
- Issues with reliability - observer bias
- Less reliable as psychologist can’t write observations in real time - have to wait, thus relying on memory

62
Q

What are the + and - of non-participant observations?

A

+ No demand characteristics
- Results can be less ecologically valid - may change behaviour as they know the psychologist is present

63
Q

What are the + and - of a covert observation?

A

+ Reduced demand characteristics
+ High ecological validity
- Ethical issues

64
Q

What are the + and - of overt observations?

A

+ Reliable data
+ No ethical issues
- Increased demand characteristics