Attachment Flashcards

1
Q

Who found out about Care-giver Interactions and their stages?

A

Maccoby (1980)

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2
Q

What is Reciprocity?

A

An interaction (turn taking), shows a secure relationship

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3
Q

What is Interactional Synchrony?

A

Caregiver and infant does same action at same time, shows a very secure relationship

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4
Q

What is the Alert Phase according to Maccoby?

A

Around 3 months
Infants signal when they are ready for interactions, like smiling and eye contact

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5
Q

What is Active Involvement?

A

Babies begin to take an active role in interactions in the alert phase

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6
Q

Evaluate the experiment of Caregiver-Infant Interactions?

A

+ Done in a lab
+ Film footage can be analysed later
+ No demand characteristics (they’re babies)
- Difficult to observe babies

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7
Q

Who studied into ‘Fathers as Attachment Figures’?

A

Schaffer and Emerson (1964)

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8
Q

What were the findings of Schaffer and Emerson?

A
  • Found babies become attached to their mothers first, at around 7 months
  • Only 3% were attached to their fathers first
  • Mothers were Primary Attachment Figures 70% of the time
  • Mothers and Fathers were joint primary care givers 27% of the time
  • Most have Secondary Attachment Figures to their fathers by 18 months
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9
Q

What was Schaffer and Emerson’ study into the Stages of Attachment?

A
  • Longitudinal study using 60 new-born babies and their mothers in Glasgow
  • Mothers and babies were studied every month, using observations and interviews
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10
Q

What was Schaffer and Emerson’s Stages of Attachment theory?

A
  • A(ll) - Asocial Stage (Similar behaviour towards objects and humans)
  • I(nfants) - Indiscriminate Attachment (2-7 months, preference for humans)
  • S(pit) - Specific Attachment (From 7 months, attachment to 1 adult, separation and stranger anxiety)
  • M(ayo) - Multiple Attachments (After 1 year, display of separation anxiety to other caregivers too)
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11
Q

Who conducted the 2 animal studies into attachment?

A

Lorenz - Imprinting (1935)
Harlow - Monkeys (1958)

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12
Q

What was Lorenz’s study?

A
  • Experiment with Geese
  • Cond1 - HE was the first moving object seen by the goose chicks, found they followed him as if he were their mother
  • Cond2 - the MOTHER goose was the first moving object they saw, found they preferred her when they were young
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13
Q

What was Harlow’s study?

A
  • Created 2 wire ‘mother’ monkeys, one covered in soft cloth, one was wired with milk
  • Studied 8 monkeys over 150 days
  • Found, all 8 monkeys spent most of their time with the cloth covered wire monkey
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14
Q

What were the two learning theories?

A

Pavlov, Classical Conditioning
Skinner, Operant Conditioning

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15
Q

What was Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment?

A
  • Food (Unconditioned Stimulus) leads to salivation (Unconditioned Response)
  • Bell (Neutral Stimulus) is rung before the dog is given food
  • Eventually, the bell becomes the Conditioned Stimulus, the dog can now salivate just by the sound of the bell (Conditioned Response)
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16
Q

What’s the relevance of Classical Conditioning in terms of Attachment?

A

States that infants associate food with the primary caregiver, thus infants like the primary caregiver solely due to them being the ‘conditioned stimulus’

17
Q

What was the theory of Operant Conditioning?

A
  • A Target Behaviour is likely to be repeated if it is positively reinforced (getting a reward)
  • A Target Behaviour is likely to be repeated if there is negative reinforcement (will be punished if not done)
18
Q

What’s the relevance of Operant Conditioning in terms of Attachment?

A

Hunger makes the infant uncomfortable and prompts a drive to reduce this discomfort (negative reinforcement) thus the infant is attached to the one feeding them as they get rid of the discomfort

19
Q

What is Bowlby’s Theory of Monotropy?

A

Evolutionary
- Monotropy: Believed we form one very special attachment, if the relationship is constant and predictable, and there is hardly any separation
- Internal Working Model: The infant will then develop an internal working model (their idea of what relationships are like, based off of theirs)
- Critical Period: Babies have to form this monotropic attachment within 2-2.5 years, or it could be damaging for life (social, emotional, physical)
- Adaptive: Forming these relationships give us an adaptive advantage (needed to survive)
- Social Releasers: These unlock the innate tendency of adults to care for them (baby face etc)

20
Q

What did Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s meta-analysis show about cultural variations?

A
  • Found Britain is the most securely attached (75%)
  • Germany is the most insecure-avoidant (35%)
  • Israel is the most insecure-resistant (29%)
21
Q

What did Takahishi find? (1990)

A
  • Found lots of Japanese children showed extreme distress at being separated from their parent
  • This was because they were rarely ever separated from them, thus would act differently to British kids, but were classified as ‘insecure’
    Example of imposed-etic
22
Q

What did Bowlby find in terms of Maternal Deprivation?

A
  • Child has to form the relationship with monotropic figures within 2 1/2 years, without too much discontinuation in the relationship
  • If not, it could lead to lower IQ, as well as lower physical development
23
Q

What was Bowlby’s 44 Thieves Study?

A
  • Studied 44 juvenile thieves, as well as a control group of 44 adolescents
  • Found, 14 of the thieves were ‘affectionless’, none with control group
  • Found, 17 of the thieves were separated from their mother from more than 6 months before they were 5
  • Correlation between maternal deprivation in infancy and subsequent criminal behaviour later on in life
24
Q

Define institutionalisation in terms of development

A

Refers to the effects of living in an institution for long periods of time, like a hospital or an orphanage

25
Q

Define disinhibited attachments

A

Children who don’t discriminate between people they choose as attachment figures - treat strangers with overfriendliness, can be attention seeking

26
Q

What was Rutter’s study into the long-term effects of institutionalisation?

A
  • Longitudinal study and natural experiment
  • 100 Romanian orphans were assessed at 4, 6, 11, and then 21 years later
  • Had a control group of 52 British children adopted at roughly the same time
  • Found those adopted by British families before 6 months old showed emotional development
  • Many adopted after 6 months showed disinhibited attachments, lower IQ and anger issues
27
Q

What was Hazan and Shaver’s ‘Love Quiz’?

A
  • Conducted a love quiz in a local newspaper and analysed over 600 replies
  • Found 50% were identified as securely attached
  • 25% insecure-avoidant, 20% insecure-resistant
  • Secure types had longer-lasting relationships
28
Q

What was Ainsworth and Bell’s ‘Strange Situation’?

A
  • Infant in a room with primary attachment figure
  • Baby encouraged to explore and play
  • Stranger comes in, talks to PAF, approaches baby
  • PAF leaves the baby and stranger together
  • PAF comes back in
    Found (British):
  • Secure Attachment - 70%, moderate distress when PAF leaves, experiences ‘reunion joy’ when they return
  • Insecure-Avoidant - 20%, no reaction to PAF leaving, or when returning
  • Insecure-Resistant - 3%, High levels of stranger and separation anxiety, resist comfort when PAF returns
29
Q

What was Grossman’s findings with the role of the father?

A
  • Longitudinal
  • Looked at relationship quality and impact on future relationships
  • Mothers had main impact on child’s later relationships
  • Fathers have a different role - play
30
Q

Evaluate the Strange Situation

A
  • Inter-rater reliability was used
  • Good predictive validity - secure had better achievements in school
  • Culturally bound (Takahashi)
31
Q

What was Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s study?

A

Meta-analysis into cultural variations
Investigated in 8 different culture types
Found Britain is most secure, Israel is the most resistant
Germany most avoidant

32
Q

What was a study done into maternal deprivation?

A

Goldfarb - Orphans
1) Spent first few months in orphanage then adopted
2) Spent first 3 years in an orphanage
Found 2 had worse IQ, less social, more aggressive

33
Q

What was a study done into influence of attachment on adult relationships?

A

Bailey et al
Found majority of women had same attachment type as their babies and mothers (internal working model)