12th Evals 2018 - Eye & Ear - Embryo Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12th Evals 2018 - Eye & Ear - Embryo Deck (78)
1

pars optica retinae/optic cup

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become 10 layers of retina

2

pars ceca retinae

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the iris

3

22 day-old “otic placode”

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the inner ear

4

optic stalk

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the optic nerve, optic chiasm, & optic tract

5

22 day-old “optic placode”

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the lens

6

pars ceca retinae

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the ciliary body

7

utricle

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the semicircular canals

8

saccule

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the cochlea

9

hyaloid artery & veins

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the central artery & central vein of retina

10

auricular hillocks

[ano ang FORESHADOWED ADULT STRUCTURES ng mga EMBRYONIC STRUCTURES na 'to?

Will become the external ear called pinna

11

Innermost layer of Cornea & Substantia Propia (intermediate layer of Cornea)

CONDENSED MESODERM/MESENCHYME

12

Extraocular muscles of the eyes (i.e. Superior Inferior, Lateral, Medial, Recti, Obliques)

CONDENSED MESODERM/MESENCHYME

13

Vitreous humor & aqueous humor

CONDENSED MESODERM/MESENCHYME

14

Sclera (colour white part of the eyeball)

CONDENSED MESODERM/MESENCHYME

15

Choroid (layer of blood vessels for retina)

CONDENSED MESODERM/MESENCHYME

16

Hyaloid blood vessels

CONDENSED MESODERM/MESENCHYME

17

Outermost layer of Cornea

SURFACE ECTODERM

18

Lens

SURFACE ECTODERM

19

Optic cup & optic stalk

NEUROECTODERM

20

Dilator & constrictor pupillae muscles of iris

MIGRATORY ECTODERM/NEURAL CREST CELLS

21

Tympanic membrane/ear drum

ECTODERM + MESODERM + ENDODERM

22

First Pharyngeal cleft

[FATE of this EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE]

external ear canal/auditory meatus

23

Second Pharyngeal cleft

[FATE of this EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE]

DEGENERATES

24

Third Pharyngeal cleft

[FATE of this EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE]

DEGENERATES

25

Fourth Pharyngeal cleft

[FATE of this EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE]

DEGENERATES

26

First Pharyngeal pouch

[ADULT DERIVATIVE ng EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE NA 'TO]

Tympanic cavity & Eustachian tube

27

Second Pharyngeal pouch

[ADULT DERIVATIVE ng EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE NA 'TO]

Palatine tonsils & Tonsillar fossa

28

Third Pharyngeal pouch, dorsal wing

[ADULT DERIVATIVE ng EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE NA 'TO]

Parathyroid gland, inferior

29

Third Pharyngeal pouch, ventral wing

[ADULT DERIVATIVE ng EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE NA 'TO]

Thymus

30

Fourth Pharyngeal pouch, dorsal wing

[ADULT DERIVATIVE ng EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE NA 'TO]

Parathyroid gland, superior

31

Fourth Pharyngeal pouch, ventral wing

[ADULT DERIVATIVE ng EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE NA 'TO]

Parafollicular cells/ “C” cells of Ultimobranchial body

32

“Foramen cecum”

[ADULT DERIVATIVE ng EMBRYONIC STRUCTURE NA 'TO]

Thyroid gland

33

Stapes + handle of malleus + long crus of incus are from 2nd Pharyngeal Arch

[anong THEORY etong MIDDLE EAR PARTS na 'to]

Alternative Theory

34

The whole Malleus + Incus are from 1st Pharyngeal Arch

[anong THEORY etong MIDDLE EAR PARTS na 'to]

Traditional Theory

35

Stapes is the only middle ear bone-derivative from 2nd Pharyngeal Arch

[anong THEORY etong MIDDLE EAR PARTS na 'to]

Traditional Theory

36

Red for them is dark

[DICHROMACY for this COMMON/REMARKABLE/UNIQUE Manifestatio]

PROTANOPIA

37

Cannot discriminate green & red/same shade for red & green

[DICHROMACY for this COMMON/REMARKABLE/UNIQUE Manifestatio]

DEUTERANOPIA

38

Everything is pink & red. Cannot appreciate nor discriminate blue & yellow. Cannot appreciate blue, yellow nor family/shades of blue

[DICHROMACY for this COMMON/REMARKABLE/UNIQUE Manifestatio]

TRITANOPIA

39

Auricular Hillock # 1

[adult ear parts]

Tragus

40

Auricular Hillock # 2

[adult ear parts]

Crus of Helix, concha (cymba and cavum)

41

Auricular Hillock # 3

[adult ear parts]

Superior point of Helix, triangular fossa

42

Auricular Hillock # 4

[adult ear parts]

Darwinian Tubercle

43

Auricular Hillock #’s 4 & 5

[adult ear parts]

Anti-Helix, Superior & Inferior Crura of Antihelix, Scapha, Helix

44

Auricular Hillock # 6

[adult ear parts]

Anti-tragus, Ear lobule

45

stapes, styloid process, superior half of hyoid

[Embryonic Eponymous Terms for these Adult Derivatives]

Reichert’s

46

incus (accdg to TRADITIONAL THEORY)

[Embryonic Eponymous Terms for these Adult Derivatives]

Meckel’s

47

malleus (accdg to TRADITIONAL THEORY)

[Embryonic Eponymous Terms for these Adult Derivatives]

Meckel’s

48

"canal left by degenerated part of hyaloid vessels
& initially occupied by hyaloid artery during embryonic period "

[Embryonic Eponymous Terms for these Adult Derivatives]

Cloquet’s

49

mark/s left by initial attachment/s of hyaloid artery & vein on the back part of embryonic lens

[Embryonic Eponymous Terms for these Adult Derivatives]

Mittendorf’s

50

represents remnant of hyaloid arteries

[Embryonic Eponymous Terms for these Adult Derivatives]

Bergmeister’s

51

central connective tissue remnants of hyaloid system found near the entrance of optic stalk

[Embryonic Eponymous Terms for these Adult Derivatives]

Kuhnt’s

52

Master gene for optic nerve formation

[gene/s for this regulatory function]

PAX-2

53

Master genes for separating single eye field into two separate eye fields

[gene/s for this regulatory function]

SHH + PAX-2

54

Master gene for eye/eye-globe formation

[gene/s for this regulatory function]

PAX-6

55

Considered master genes for outer/10th layer of retina formation

[gene/s for this regulatory function]

MITF + TGF-b

56

Considered master genes for inner/1st 9 layers of retina formation

[gene/s for this regulatory function]

CHX-10 + FGF

57

“cupping” process/invagination of optic cup

[gene/s for this regulatory function]

no gene expressed

58

Master genes for crystallin formation

[gene/s for this regulatory function]

LMAF + SOX-2 + PAX-6 + PROX-1

59

Acknowledged as master gene for fibers of Zinn formation which holds the developing lens in place

[gene/s for this regulatory function]

LMAF

60

Hirsutism + Macrotia + Macrostomia + no mammary glands

[Diagnoses for these Common Manifesations]

Say-Barber Syndrome

61

Preauricular pits + renal anomaly

[Diagnoses for these Common Manifesations]

Lachiewicz-Sibley Syndrome

62

Preauricular pits/tags + renal anomaly + cleft palate/lips

[Diagnoses for these Common Manifesations]

Melnick-Fraser Syndrome

63

Obesity + gynecomastia + mild retardation + macrotia

[Diagnoses for these Common Manifesations]

Börjeson-Lehman-Forssman Syndrome

64

Coloboma + Heart Defect + Atresia of Nasal Choanae + Renal Anomaly + Genitourinary Anomalies + Deafness

[Diagnoses for these Common Manifesations]

CHARGE Syndrome

65

Cryptophthalmos + clitoromegaly

[Diagnoses for these Common Manifesations]

Meyer- Fraser-Francois-Feichtiger + Schwickerath-Ullrich Syndrome

66

Spock ear

[Diagnoses for these Common Manifesations]

Stahl’s ear

67

Macrotia due to huge Helix of pinna

[Diagnoses for these Common Manifesations]

Selhurst’s ear

68

IMPORTANT!
How to classify MICROTIA DEGREE of SEVERITY using GRADING SYSTEM

- Small ears Grades:
Grade1: miniature identifiable parts of ear
Grade2: with cleft (hemi-ear, stenotic ear canal, anti-helix is perpendicular to helix)
Grade3: absence of ear canal and with “peanut-like” vestige
Grade4: dorsal end/ total absence of ear (anotia)
* Grade3&4- no ossicles/ tympanic membrane; Sx is possible as long as px has intact internal ear
* Device: BAHA- Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

69


What maintains clarity of embryonic lens?

– Crystallin α, β, γ
– Pseusoenucleating lens fibers (of very few numbers) or decreased nuclear sizes
-Usage of glucose on anaerobic respiration and PPP
– Detached Hyaloid Artery

70

Specialized cells embedded in the surface of the vitreous body which may contribute to the breakdown and renewal of the hyaluronic acid.

Hyalocytes of Balazs

71

TRADITIONAL vs ALTERNATIVE?
– incus & malleus -> pharyngeal arch 1

TRADITIONAL

72

TRADITIONAL vs ALTERNATIVE?- - some parts of incus & malleus -> pharyngeal arch 2

ALTERNATIVE

73

oculus sinister (OS)

left eye

74

auris sinister (AS)

left ear

75

oculus dexter (OD)

right eye

76

auris dexter (AD)

left eye

77

oculus uterque (OU)

each eye

78

auris uterque (AU)

each ear