13-03 ALL EMBRYO I 2018 - CVS Flashcards Preview

ANATOMY > 13-03 ALL EMBRYO I 2018 - CVS > Flashcards

Flashcards in 13-03 ALL EMBRYO I 2018 - CVS Deck (106)
1

Epicardium

[what is the specific germ layer of origin?]

E. Mesodermal Septum Transversum

2

Myocardium

[what is the specific germ layer of origin?]

A. splanchnic layer of Lateral Plate Mesoderm

3

Endocardium

[what is the specific germ layer of origin?]

A. splanchnic layer of Lateral Plate Mesoderm

4

Conotruncal Septum

[what is the specific germ layer of origin?]

C. migratory ectoderm cells called Neural Crest Cells

5

Proximal Part of Coronary Arteries

[what is the specific germ layer of origin?]

E. Mesodermal Septum Transversum

6

First to migrate from Primitive Streak to Oropharyngeal Membrane

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

A. Cells forming the Outflow tract (pulmonary trunk & ascending aorta)

7

Second to migrate from Primitive Streak to Oropharyngeal Membrane

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

C. Cells that will participate in Left Ventricle formation

8

Third to migrate from Primitive Streak to Oropharyngeal Membrane

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

B. Cells that will participate in Right Ventricle formation

9

Fourth to migrate from Primitive Streak to Oropharyngeal Membrane

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

D. Cells destined to become part of Common Atrium

10

Last to Migrate

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

E. Cells destined to become part of Sinus Venosus & its tributaries (Superior Vena Cava; Inferior Vena Cava; Coronary Sinus; Oblique Vein of Left Atrium)

11

18th day AOG

A. crescent part of horshoe-shaped primordial heart is in front of the forming brain (neural tube)

[Position of the Forming Heart]

12

20th day AOG

B. in front of the forming head/face

[Position of the Forming Heart]

13

21st day AOG

C. at the cervical/neck region

[Position of the Forming Heart]

14

22nd day AOG

D. inside the primordial thoracic cavity abutted by forming “central tendon of diaphragm” (called septum transversum)

[Position of the Forming Heart]

15

1st First Few Shapes of the Heart

Horshoe-shape heart

16

2nd First Few Shapes of the Heart

Tube-like Heart (heart tube)

17

final Shape of the Heart

Inverted Pyramid after “cardiac looping” (the Adult shape)

18

First to migrate from Primitive Streak to Oropharyngeal Membrane

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

A. Cells forming the Outflow tract (pulmonary trunk & ascending aorta)

19

2nd to migrate from Primitive Streak to Oropharyngeal Membrane

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

B. Cells that will participate in Right Ventricle formation

20

3rd to migrate from Primitive Streak to Oropharyngeal Membrane

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

C. Cells that will participate in Left Ventricle formation

21

4th to migrate from Primitive Streak to Oropharyngeal Membrane

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

D. Cells destined to become part of Common Atrium

22

Last to Migrate

[Cells destined to form Cranial to Caudal Segments of the Horshoe-Shaped-Heart]

E. Cells destined to become part of Sinus Venosus & its tributaries (Superior Vena Cava; Inferior Vena Cava; Coronary Sinus; Oblique Vein of Left Atrium)

23

Proximal 3rd of BC

[Segments of “Bulbus Cordis” (BC]

C. Primordial trabeculated part of the Right Ventricle

[Terminology]

24

Mid portion/Middle 3rd of BC

[Segments of “Bulbus Cordis” (BC]

A. Conus Cordis

[Terminology]

25

Distal 3rd of BC

[Segments of “Bulbus Cordis” (BC]

B. Truncus Arteriosus

[Terminology]

26

Conus infundibulum & Aortic vestibule

[Fates or Adult Derivatives of “Bulbus Cordis’” Segments once septated/divided by “CONOTRUNCAL SEPTUM”]

A. Conus Cordis

[Terminology]

27

Proximal halves of Pulmonary Trunk & Ascending Aorta

[Fates or Adult Derivatives of “Bulbus Cordis’” Segments once septated/divided by “CONOTRUNCAL SEPTUM”]

B. Truncus Arteriosus

[Terminology]

28

Right Ventricle

[Fates or Adult Derivatives of “Bulbus Cordis’” Segments once septated/divided by “CONOTRUNCAL SEPTUM”]

C. Primordial trabeculated part of the Right Ventricle

[Terminology]

29

Distal halves of Pulmonary Trunk & Ascending Aorta

[Fates or Adult Derivatives of “Bulbus Cordis’” Segments once septated/divided by “CONOTRUNCAL SEPTUM”]

D. Aortic Sac

[Terminology]

30

Master Gene for Heart formation

B. NKX-2.5

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

31

Normal “inhibitors of Heart formation”

A. WNT-3a & WNT-8

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

32

Inhibits “inhibitors of Heart formation”

C. crescent & cerberus

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

33

Genes involved in upregulating NKX-2.5

D. BMP-2 + BMP-4 + inhibiting WNT-3a & WNT-8

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

34

Important for expression of Cardiac-Specific Proteins

E. FGF-8

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

35

Commits cells to becoming CAUDAL parts of HEART TUBE

G. exposure to HIGH concentration of Retinoic Acid

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

36

Commits cells to becoming CRANIAL parts of HEART TUBE

F. exposure to LOW concentration of Retinoic Acid

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

37

Plays important role in SEPTATION of forming heart

H. TBX-5

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

38

Considered “lefty genes” why heart tube loops towards the dorsocranially & to the left and why heart’s apex protrudes towards the left precordium

I. nodal + Lefty-2 + PITX-2 (master gene for LEFT-SIDED organs)

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

39

Master gene for Left Ventricle formation

K. HAND-1

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

40

Master gene for Right Ventricle formation

[Genetic/Molecular Regulatory Role]

J. HAND-2

[Genes & Molecules Involved]

41

Right Umbilical Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

A. Degenerate

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

42

Lower half of Right Anterior Cardinal Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

B. Superior Vena Cava

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

43

Posterior Cardinal Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

C. Inferior Vena Cava

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

44

Left Sinus Horn

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

D. Coronary Sinus & Oblique Vein of the Left Atrium

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

45

Sinus venosus + Right Sinus Horn

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

E. Wall of Right Atrium

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

46

Left Umbilical Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

F. Will obliterate into Ligamentum Teres Hepatis

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

47

Upper half of Right Vitelline Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

G. Portal Vein

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

48

Lower half of Right Vitelline Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

H. Superior Mesenteric Vein

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

49

Connecting Vein between Right Vitelline Vein & Left Umbilical Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

I. Ductus Venosus

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

50

Connecting Vein between 2 Anterior Cardinal Veins

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

J. Left Brachiocephalic Vein

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

51

Upper half of Right Anterior Cardinal Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

K. Right Brachiocephalic Vein

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

52

Left Vitelline Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

A. Degenerate

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

53

Left Anterior Cardinal Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

A. Degenerate

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

54

Left Posterior Cardinal Vein

[SINUS VENOSUS & its tributaries]

L. Left Testicular Vein (needs more citation)

[FATE & Fetal/Adult Derivatives]

55

Foramen Ovale

[FETAL PARTS]

D. Fossa Ovalis

56

Ductus Arteriosus

[FETAL PARTS]

C. Ligamentum Arteriosum

57

Ductus Venosus

[FETAL PARTS]

A. Ligamentum Venosum

58

Left Umbilical Vein

[FETAL PARTS]

B. Ligamentum Teres Hepatis or “round ligament”

59

Proximal segments of Right & Left Umbilical Arteries

[FETAL PARTS]

F. Right & Left Superior Vesical (Urinary Bladder) Arteries

60

Distal segments of Right & Left Umbilical Arteries

[FETAL PARTS]

E. Right & Left Medial Umbilical Folds

61

Cranial halves of Right & Left Venous Valves

[VALVES OF FORMING RIGHT ATRIUM]

A. Will fuse to form “Septum Spurium”

[DERIVATIVES]

62

“Septum Spurium” + Caudal half of Left Venous Valve

[VALVES OF FORMING RIGHT ATRIUM]

B. Blend with “Septum Secundum” of Interatrial Septum

[DERIVATIVES]

63

Superior portion of Caudal half of Right Venous Valve

[VALVES OF FORMING RIGHT ATRIUM]

C. Valve of Inferior Vena Cava (called EUSTACHIAN VALVE)

[DERIVATIVES]

64

Inferior portion of Caudal half of Right Venous Valve

[VALVES OF FORMING RIGHT ATRIUM]

D. Valve of Coronary Sinus (called THEBESIAN VALVE)

[DERIVATIVES]

65

Most Common type

[Incidence Rate]

[TYPES OF Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)]

B. Ostium Secundum Defect

[TYPES OF Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)]

66

Second Most Common type

[Incidence Rate]

[TYPES OF Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)]

C. Atrioventricular Defect

[TYPES OF Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)]

67

Least Common

[Incidence Rate]

[TYPES OF Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)]

A. Ostium Primum Defect

[TYPES OF Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)]

68

Not considered as ASD

[Incidence Rate]

[TYPES OF Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)]

D. Probe Patency of the Foramen Ovale

[TYPES OF Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)]

69

Most Common type

[Incidence Rate]

[TYPES OF Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)]

B. Membranous type

[TYPES OF Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)]

70

Second Most Common type

[Incidence Rate]

[TYPES OF Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)]

C. infracristal-type

[TYPES OF Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)]

71

Third Common

[Incidence Rate]

[TYPES OF Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)]

D. supracristal-type

[TYPES OF Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)]

72

Least Common

[Incidence Rate]

[TYPES OF Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)]

A. Muscular type

[TYPES OF Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)]

73

MEMORIZE!

(Most Common to Least Common)
VSD
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of Great Vessels
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
ASD
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Coarctation of Aorta
Endocardial Cushion Defect of “G” Syndrome

74

Initial “pacemaker”

A. caudal part of the left HEART TUBE

[Fetal-to-Adult Conducting System of the Heart]

75

Second “pacemaker”

B. Sinus Venosus

[Fetal-to-Adult Conducting System of the Heart]

76

Adult “pacemaker”

C. Right atrium’s epicardium near Superior Vena Cava’s & Sinus Venosus’ sites of incorporation

[Fetal-to-Adult Conducting System of the Heart]

77

The “pacemaker”

S.A. node

[Fetal-to-Adult Conducting System of the Heart]

78

The “gatekeeper”

E. A.V. node on the posterior base of interatrial septum

[Fetal-to-Adult Conducting System of the Heart]

79

First aortic arch, Right

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

A. Maxillary artery

80

Second aortic arch, Right

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

C. Stapedial artery & Hyoidal artery

81

Third aortic arch, Right

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

F. Common Carotid artery & proximal internal carotid artery

82

Fourth aortic arch, Right

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

B. Proximal third of Subclavian artery

83

Fifth aortic arch, Right

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

E. Degenerates or never forms

84

Sixth aortic arch, Right

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

D. Pulmonary artery/trunk

85

First aortic arch, Left

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

A. Maxillary artery

86

Second aortic arch, Left

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

C. Stapedial artery & Hyoidal artery

87

Third aortic arch, Left

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

F. Common Carotid artery & proximal internal carotid artery

88

Fourth aortic arch, Left

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

B. distal arch of aorta

89

Fifth aortic arch, Left

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

E. Degenerates or never forms

90

Sixth aortic arch, Left

[what is the adult derivative of this aortic arch?]

D. Ductus arteriosus

91

Right 7th Intersegmental artery

[what is the adult derivative?]

A. Right Distal third of Subclavian artery

92

Left 7th Intersegmental artery

[what is the adult derivative?]

B. the whole Left Subclavian artery

93

Right Horn of Aortic Sac

[what is the adult derivative?]

A. Brachiocephalic trunk

94

Left Horn of Aortic Sac

[what is the adult derivative?]

B. proximal arch of aorta

95

Main supply to Yolk Sac

[what's the derivative?]

C. vitelline arteries

96

Main supply to foregut derivatives

[what's the derivative?]

F. celiac artery

97

Main supply to midgut derivatives

[what's the derivative?]

D. superior mesenteric artery

98

Main supply to hindgut derivatives

[what's the derivative?]

E. inferior mesenteric artery

99

Fates of Umbilical arteries, Proximal segments

[what's the derivative?]

B. internal iliac arteries & superior vesical arteries

100

Fates of Umbilical arteries, Distal segments

[what's the derivative?]

A. medial umbilical ligaments

101

Sacrocardinal veins

[what is the adult derivatives of the ff Embryonic Tributaries of Posterior Cardinal Veins]

C. common iliac veins

102

Subcardinal veins

[what is the adult derivatives of the ff Embryonic Tributaries of Posterior Cardinal Veins]

B. renal veins

103

Supracardinal veins

[what is the adult derivatives of the ff Embryonic Tributaries of Posterior Cardinal Veins]

A. intercostal veins of ribs; azygos; & hemiazygos veins

104

Master gene for vascular system formation

[Regulatory Functions]

A. vegf (Vascular Endothelial Growth factor)

[VASCULAR GENES]

105

Down regulates vegf but up regulates lymphatic vessels formation

[Regulatory Functions]

B. PROX-1

[VASCULAR GENES]

106

These proteins causes PROX-1 endothelial cells to sprout from existing VEINS to initiate growth of lymphatic vessels

[Regulatory Functions]

C. VEGF-R3 + VEGFC

[VASCULAR GENES]