13-01 ALL EMBRYO I 2018 - Intro Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13-01 ALL EMBRYO I 2018 - Intro Deck (90)
1

phase in mitosis where joined sister chromatids as highly distinguishable as "condensed chromosome" for the first time via electron microscope.

Prometaphase

2

phase in any division where the cell's nucleus' DNA will be duplicated via semi-conservative replication

S phase of interphase

3

if the cell is not to divide again, it will stay at what phase of interphase?

G0 - not to divide ever
G1 - not to divide again

4

pairing of homologous chromosome during Meiosis I Prophase is termed as...

synapsis

5

type of cellular division where the cytokinesis' characteristics are completely and equally done

Mitosis

6

Most common Trisomy (live births)

Trisomy 21

7

will become the ACROSOMAL CAP

Golgi apparati

8

will become the "MIDDLE-PIECE" of flagellum

mitochondria

9

will be guided by "MANCHETTE" to become the flagellum

centrioles

10

will "HOUSE" the enzyme for destruction of pellucidum

lysosomes

11

[cell cycles] pairing of homologous chromosomes

synapsis

12

[cell cycles] process of interchange of genetic segments during Meiosis I

crossover

13

[cell cycles] DNA replication via semi-conservative type of replication

Swanson phase

14

[cell cycles] "X" like structure or point of union between arms of homologous chromosomes where interchange of genetic material begins

chiasma

15

[cell cycles] phase wherein nuclear membrane starts to disappear & you can appreciate chromosomes as double chromatids joined

prometaphase

16

[gametogenesis] these organelles participate in acrosome formation

golgi bodies

17

[gametogenesis] first main source of nutrients/blood cells starting 10th day until 10th week of gestation

yolk sac

18

[gametogenesis] these cells secrete "OOCYTE INHIBITING SUBSTANCE" that leads to prolonged "DIPLOTENE" arrest of primary oocyte.

follicular cell

19

[adult derivatives] conotruncal septum

ectoderm

20

[adult derivatives] urinary bladder and prostate

endoderm

21

stylopharyngeus

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

somitomeres

22

trapezius

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

dorsomedial layer of somite

23

trabeculae carnae

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

Lateral plate mesoderm (splanchnic layer)

24

conotruncal septum

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

neural crest cells

25

triceps brachii

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

ventrolateral layer of somite

26

latissimus dorsi

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

dorsomedial layer of somite

27

dilator and constrictor pupillae

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

neural crest cells

28

rhomboideus

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

dorsomedial layer of somite

29

pectinate muscle

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

Lateral plate mesoderm (splanchnic layer)

30

myoepithelial cells of sweat and mammary glands

[embryonic origin of muscular structures]

neural crest cells

31

[cell cycles] interphase-stage right after mitosis & cytokinesis wherein cell doubles its original size, a lot protein syntheses are evident, and the cell performs its distinct normal functions

Growthe One Phase/ Gap One

32

[cell cycles] DNA replication via semi-conservative type of replication

Swanson phase

33

[cell cycles] Some cells do not divide often or ever like neural tissues

Growth Zero Phase/ Gap Zero

34

[cell cycles] The immediate stage prior prophase of mitosis

Growth Two Phase/ Gap Two

35

[cell cycles] The chromatin starts to coil, condense & contract

Prophase

36

[cell cycles] nuclear membrane starts to disappear & you can appreciate chromosomes as double chromatids joined by centromere

prometaphase

37

[cell cycles] alignment of chromosomes in an equitorial plane as microtubules are accurately attached to each sides of centromere

Metaphase

38

[cell cycles] contraction of mitotic spindle that separates one chromatid to its sister chromatid

anaphase

39

[cell cycles] regeneration of nuclear membrane & chromatids start to uncoil into chromatin

Telophase

40

[cell cycles] pairing of homologous chromosomes

synapsis

41

[cell cycles] process of interchange of genetic segments during meiosis One

crossover

42

[cell cycles] "x" like structure or point of union between arms of homologous chromosomes where interchange of genetic material begins

chiasma

43

[cell cycles] cytokinesis is incomplete leaving numerous cytoplasmic bridges

spermatogenesis' cytokinesis

44

[cell cycles] cytokinesis is unequal

oogenesis' cytokinesis

45

[cell cycles] cytokinesis is complete and equal & daughter cells receive same chromosomal complement

mitosis' cytokinesis

46

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

first arrest of primary oocyte while undergoing First Meiosis Prophase

Diplotene

47

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

second arrest of secondary oocyte happens during what specific stage of Meiosis II

Metaphase

48

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

What induces rapid completion of oocyte's first arrest?

puberty

49

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

What induces rapid completion of oocyte's second arrest?

fertilization

50

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

These organelles participate in acrosome formation

Golgi appratus

51

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

these organelles participate in middle piece formation

mitochondria

52

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

these organelles participate in axoneme & flagellum's principal piece

centrioles

53

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

the release of mature spermatozoa to the lumen of seminiferous tubules

spermiation

54

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

the change from an ovoid spermatid into a spermatozoon with head-neck-&-tailed cell

spermiogenesis

55

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

reducing the chromosomal complement of diploid primary spermatocyte into haploid secondary spermatocyte

spermatidogenesis

56

[gametogenesis & fertilization]


during 8th week AOG, these cells will synthesize "Mullerian inhibiting Substances" and during puberty these cells secrete "inhibin" & "androgen binding protein"

sertoli cells

57

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

during 8th week AOG, these cells will synthesize "testosterone"

Leydig cells

58

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

first excretory unit of the embryo

allantois

59

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

first main source of nutrients/blood cells starting 10th day until 10th week age of gestation

yolk sac

60

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

main source of mesenchymal cells that will become part of MESODERM layer as they migrate inwards from this source

primitive streak

61

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

secretes trypsin-like substance that leads to zona pellucidum removal/"hatching"

trophoblast

62

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

these cells secrete "oocyte inhibiting substance" that leads to prolonged "diplotene" arrest of primary oocytes

Follicular cells

63

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

to block recognition of sperm cells as "foreign bodies"

L-Selectin, etc

= L-selectin + carbohydrate receptors & HLA-G (histocompatibility complex 1B Class)

64

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

requirements to penetrate of corona radiate

power & hyaluronidase

=power of the middle piece to propel plus hyaluronidase enzyme

65

[gametogenesis & fertilization]

the sperm cells' conditioning process while inside female internal genitalia after ejaculation & before fertilization. Wherein glycoprotein & seminal protein coating of the sperm's head is partially to completely removed

capacitation

66

enamel of tooth & odontoblasts

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

67

definitive adult type of kidney

[adult dervative]

mesoderm

[embryonic origin]

68

myoepithelial cells of sweat & mammary glands

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

69

liver, pancreas, gallbladder

[adult dervative]

endoderm

[embryonic origin]

70

spleen

[adult dervative]

mesoderm

[embryonic origin]

71

pupillary dilators & constrictors of the iris

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

72

nerves

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

73

viscerocranium (skeleton of the face)

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

74

tunica media of blood vessels of the face

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

75

leptomeninges

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

76

dura mater of spinal cord

[adult dervative]

mesoderm

[embryonic origin]

77

parafollicular cells of thyroid gland

[adult dervative]

endoderm

[embryonic origin]

-but in Langman's, it's ECTO (neural crest cell-derived)
-so, either ectoderm or endoderm

78

parathyroid gland

[adult dervative]

endoderm

[embryonic origin]

79

follicle cells of thyroid gland

[adult dervative]

endoderm

[embryonic origin]

80

conotruncal septum

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

81

urinary bladder & prostate

[adult dervative]

endoderm

[embryonic origin]

82

hair

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

83

intestines' epithelium

[adult dervative]

endoderm

[embryonic origin]

84

Auerbach's plexus

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

85

dermis of the face

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

86

stomodeum (oral cavity)

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

87

proctodeum (lower half of anal canal

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

88

external urethra orifice

[adult dervative]

ectoderm

[embryonic origin]

89

respiratory epithelium of the lungs

[adult dervative]

endoderm

[embryonic origin]

90

plasma & blood components

[adult dervative]

mesoderm

[embryonic origin]