14-1 & 14-2 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 14-1 & 14-2 Test Deck (16):
1

What are the first 22 pairs of chromosomes called?

autosomes

2

What is the last pair of chromosomes called?

sex chromosomes

3

What is a karyotype?

A karyotype is a picture made by a genetic counselor that shows all 23 pairs of chromosomes in numerical order.

4

What are the uses of karyotype?

Detecting chromosomal abnormalities, determining sex linked disorders, seeing if the person has or could pass on genetic disorders

5

What is Mendel's first principle?

Traits are determined by genes, which are passed from parent to offspring

6

What is Mendel's second principle?

When there are two or more forms of a gene, some can be dominant and others recessive.

7

What is Mendel's third principle?

In most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene, which are segregated when gametes are formed.

8

What is Mendel's fourth principle?

The alleles for different genes usually segregate independently.

9

Sex is determined by:

sex chromosomes; XX=female, XY=male. 50% for either gender.

10

What are the uses of a pedigree?

To figure out how each trait is passed from one generation to the next; to determine the probability of a child inheriting the trait; to infer the genotypes of family members

11

Human traits can be:

polygenic, have multiple alleles, and be codominant

12

Recessive genetic diseases:

occur in the population and many can be lethal

13

Sometimes one gene can have:

one alteration which changes one protein to create a genetic disease

14

Chromosomal abnormalities can result in:

genetic conditions such as Downs Syndrome

15

There are sex chromosome disorders which are:

related to the number of the X and Y chromosomes such as XXY, XXX, XO, XXYY

16

How many pairs/individual chromosomes are there in a normal human cell?

23 pairs/46 individual