Flashcards in 14-1 & 14-2 Test Deck (16):
What are the first 22 pairs of chromosomes called?
What is the last pair of chromosomes called?
What is a karyotype?
A karyotype is a picture made by a genetic counselor that shows all 23 pairs of chromosomes in numerical order.
What are the uses of karyotype?
Detecting chromosomal abnormalities, determining sex linked disorders, seeing if the person has or could pass on genetic disorders
What is Mendel's first principle?
Traits are determined by genes, which are passed from parent to offspring
What is Mendel's second principle?
When there are two or more forms of a gene, some can be dominant and others recessive.
What is Mendel's third principle?
In most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has two copies of each gene, which are segregated when gametes are formed.
What is Mendel's fourth principle?
The alleles for different genes usually segregate independently.
Sex is determined by:
sex chromosomes; XX=female, XY=male. 50% for either gender.
What are the uses of a pedigree?
To figure out how each trait is passed from one generation to the next; to determine the probability of a child inheriting the trait; to infer the genotypes of family members
Human traits can be:
polygenic, have multiple alleles, and be codominant
Recessive genetic diseases:
occur in the population and many can be lethal
Sometimes one gene can have:
one alteration which changes one protein to create a genetic disease
Chromosomal abnormalities can result in:
genetic conditions such as Downs Syndrome
There are sex chromosome disorders which are:
related to the number of the X and Y chromosomes such as XXY, XXX, XO, XXYY