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Flashcards in 14 - Qualitative Data Analysis Deck (26):

what did Miles call qualitative data?

"an attractive nuisance"



analysis is done after some of the stat has been collected, and implications of that analysis form further data collection


analytic induction

an iterative process, begins with rough definition of research question proceeds to a hypothetical answer, then moves to data collection.


what makes analytical induction unique to other grounded theory approaches?

seeks universal explanations, thus is not a very popular method. most examples of analytic induction are not recent, and does not provide guidelines for when theoretical saturation has been reached


grounded theory

theory derived from data, systematically gathered/analyzed; most widely used framework for analyzing qualitative data, critiqued for vague difference between concepts and categories


two central features of grounded theory

1. development out of data
2. iterative/recursive approach in which data collection and analysis proceed each other in tandem


coding in grounded theory

the key process; data is broken into component parts and given names, starts soon after data collection.


coding in grounded theory vs quantitative research

interpretation shapes emergent codes instead of fitting data into preconceived codes. grounded theory coding is more fluid and tentative. grounded theory often generates new theories while quantitative usually tests existing theory.


grounded theory uses ____ comparison

constant. new and existing data within concepts/categories are frequently compared.


theoretical saturation

nothing can be gained by further reviewing of old data nor collection of new data


three types of coding

open, axial, selective
all different parts of the same process
not all researchers operate on this three-fold distinction


open coding

process of breaking down, examining, comparing, conceptualizing, and categorizing data. stays close to data. yields concepts later grouped into categories.
ex: "anger", "jealousy", "affection" are all grouped into the category "emotion"


axial coding

set of procedures whereby data are put together in new ways after open coding by making connections between categories. most controversial step because it is perceived as closing off coding process too quickly
ex: "emotion" + way it is expressed --> hardship/loss


selective coding

selecting core category, systematically relating it to other categories, validating those relationships and filling in categories that need further refinement
ex: core category of hardship/loss can be "adaption"


selective/focused coding

codes determined significant if revealing or frequently occurring. codes are combined. data is reevaluated/reexplored in terms of selected codes.
ex: daughter/mother relationships coded for "closeness", but after selective/focused coding, was redefined into "closeness" and "overcloseness"


(grounded theory) concepts

building blocks of theory, produced through open coding


(grounded theory) categories

subsumes two or more concepts, an especially crucial category may be a core category


(grounded theory) properties

attributes/aspects of a category


(grounded theory) hypothesis

initial hunches about relationships between concepts


(grounded theory) theory

a set of well-developed categories systematically interrelated through statements of relationship to form a theoretical framework that explains relevant social (or other) phenomenon. can be substansive or formal.


substansive theory

pertains to a certain empirical instance of a phenomenon,
ex: racial prejudice in hospital setting


formal theory

higher level of abstraction, has applicability to several susbstansive areas; requires data collection in different settings



notes that researchers write for themselves or their colleagues as a reminder of what a particular concept/category refers to. Can help crystalize ideas and keep track of thoughts.


problems with coding

loss of context
fragmentation of data


narrative analysis

sensitive to connections between people's past, present, future, and their sense of place and role in these events


4 models of narrative analysis

1. thematic examines what is said, not how it is said
2. structural emphasizes the way the story is told
3. interactional looks at dialogue between storyteller and listener; prominence is placed on co-construction of meaning
4. performative analyzes narrative as performance, explores use of words and gestures