14. Sleep Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 14. Sleep Deck (43):
1

Why do we sleep? (4)

1. energy conservation
- reduce expenditure -> reduce fuel need?

2. facilitate learning and memory
- 'classic' EEG experiments

3. cellular repair and restoration
- products of oxidative stress build up

4. evolutionary protection from predators
- stay still, quiet, out of sight during the night when you're vulnerable

2

Sleep requirements

depends on age
- new born most sleep 14-17hrs
- young adult 7-9hrs

variations between people
- more or less may be ok

3

how much do people actually sleep?

>60% get less than 7hrs

> 30% get recommended

4

reasons for low sleep?

low priority
- too busy

sleep apnea (increasing)
- common with obesity

5

consequences of sleep deprivation

- fatigue, lethargy. lack motivation
- moodiness, irritability
- creativity, problem solving
- stress coping
- immune system
- concentration, memory
- motor skills, more accidents
- decision making
- weight gain
- heart disease and insulin resistance

6

top self reported sleep related difficulties

1. concentration
2. remembering
3. working on hobbies

etc

7

low sleep requirement gene

DEC2 mutation
- over expression sleep more
- deletion sleep less

(mouse study)

8

people with DEC2 mutation

under expression / deletion --> require less sleep
- faster metabolism
- leaner
- healthier overall

more "effecient" sleepers (maybe)

9

sleep cycle graph

Wake
REM
Non-REM
- 4 stages (light -> deep)

10

Metabolic processes during wake and sleep

wake
- cortisol spike
- catecholamine spike
- insulin secretion
- FA uptake and oxidation
- glycolytic metabolism

sleep
- melatonin spike
- temp drop
- growth hormone spike
- leptin secretion
- glucagon secretion
- mitochondrial biogenesis

11

Vicious cycle of sleep and obesity

lack of sleep
- decreased motivation
- disrupted metabolism
- hormonal changes
- more time awake to eat
*** cause obesity

obesity
- sleep apnea and other sleep disorders
- depression and anxiety
- chronic inflammatory state (leads to change in hormones)
*** cause lack of sleep

12

Study: weight gain and time spent sleeping
- women over 16 years

started heavier and gained more weight

13

childhood sleep and adult BMI

1hr reduction in sleep as child
-- 50% increased risk of obesity at 32yr

14

% of people reporting insomnia increased

BMI
leisure time physical activity

15

sleep and appetite
- 2d with 4hr sleep vs 10hr sleep

lack of sleep increased appetite
- decreased leptin
- increased ghrelin

16

sleep and food choices

greater % wanted higher fat food choices
- need more energy while awake longer

study
- 23 lean subjects
- controlled for sleep
- list of 80 foods, selected ones they desired

17

energy conservation during sleep

10% max (small)

E = BMR + thermic effect of food + physical activity

18

insomniacs and mental health

10x depression
17x anxiety

- diseases cause either insomnia or oversleeping
*** viscous cycle

19

why is lack of sleep so detrimental

less time spent in deep restorative sleep

20

sleep and cognitive recognition and negativity

40% reduced recognition of words
- forgot 50% positive words
- only 20% negative words

negativity

21

sleep and IR

whole body - 16% decrease
adipose - 30% decrease

study
4days of 4hr sleep vs 8hr sleep

22

sleep and immune function

more antibodies produced during sleep

study
- hep A shot
- kept wake vs sleep

23

shift workers

increased incidence of coronary heart disease

24

daylight savings

1hr sleep huge difference

increased myocardial infarctions
- 7 days following forward (spring)

decreased myocardial infarctions
- 7 days moving back (fall)

25

OSA

obstructive sleep apnea
- soft palate drops to block airway
- intermittent and repetitive cessation of breathing
- decreased blood O2 during sleep
- fragmented sleep
- decrease REM and slow wave NREM sleep

* viscous cycle

26

OSA risk factors

obesity
>50% T2D

27

OSA treatment

CPAP
- continuous positive airway pressure

28

too much sleep

increased disease risk (chronic scenario)
- usually masks existing diseased

29

the body's internal clock

circardian rhythms
- nerve cells hypothalamus
- suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

30

SCN function

suprachiasmatic nucleus in hypothalamus
- produces melatonin
- pineal gland
- controlled by light

31

light and sleep

melanopsin receptors in eye sense light
- transmit signal to SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus)
- prevents pineal gland from producing melatonin

blue light worst

32

first and second sleep

used to sleep 2 ~4h
- seperated 1-2hr of quiet time

dark room 14hr per day for 4 weeks
- returned to this sleep schedule

33

napping

20min
- stages 1 and 2
- havent reached deep sleep yet

34

social jet lag

diff between body's sleep and life
- work and school

body clock vs social clock
- dependent on chronotype

35

exercise and sleep

vigorous is best
- physical exhaustion
- morning is better vs evening

36

foods that help sleep

meats and dairy, complex carbs, cherries
- tryptophan
- increase seritonin ==> increase melatonin

37

NSRED

nocternal sleep related eating disorder

38

caffiene

antagonizes adenosine
- 15mins
- 6.5hrs length

39

alcohol

reduced REM sleep
- shorten latency but reduce quality

40

smoking

stimulant
withdrawal during sleep
sleep apnea risk factor

41

weed

reduce chronic pain
- useful with illness

lethargy and lack of motivation

42

technology

blue light

43

insomnia treatments

sleep hygeine practices
prescriptions
- benzodiazepines (valium)
- non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (lunesta
OTC (zzquil)
natural (melatonin)

sex
- men mostly
- prolactin and oxytocin release