15 Olfaction and Taste Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15 Olfaction and Taste Deck (49):
1

trigeminal system

sensory nerve endings in the oral and nasal cavities, it plays a protective role

2

TRP

a sodium and calcium channel that responds to temperature and spiciness (capsacin and menthol)

3

olfactory system has _____ sensitivity and a ____ range of discrimination

high; broad

4

goofy: butyl mercaptan

skunk smell

5

anosmias

selective olfactory defects

6

goofy: asparagine

smelly odor from asparagus

7

vomeronasal organ

a system that detects pheromones in animals. it's role in humans is likely absent

8

*basal cells*

precursors for additional olfactory neurons (neurogenesis occurs here)

9

granule cells

?

10

mitral cells

the principal projection neurons of the olfactory bulb, and are the only
ones to project to other regions of the brain

HIGH CONVERGENCE and specificity in glomeruli

11

periglomerular cells

?

12

glomeruli

ends of receptor cell axons and mitral cell dendrites

13

olfactory cilia

site of greatest sensitivity to odorants

14

odorant receptor: what class?

G-protein coupled receptor

15

Golf

G-protein coupled to an olfactory receptor and a cAMP dependent channel

16

IP3

some odorants rely on a phospholipase C pathway

17

coding of olfactory stimuli

cortical neurons compare information from multiple receptor types

18

across fiber pattern

the code for a particular quality is determined by the pattern of activity across all of the afferent nerve fibers, rather than by activity in any single nerve fiber
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27946/

19

labeled line

one receptor for one taste, this model doesn't appear to be true
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27946/

20

pyriform cortex

emotional processing of odors

21

entorhinal cortex

memory and odor

22

locus ceruleus (olfaction)

increases sensitivity to odor

23

what is more sensitive: taste or odor?

odor

24

fungiform papillae

taste buds at top
Facial Nerve

25

vallate papillae

large, base of tongue (1/2 of taste buds)
taste buds at side of papillae
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX)

26

follate

edges of tongue
taste buds at sid
Glossopharyngeal Nerve and Facial Nerve

27

filoform papillae

no taste buds

28

super taster

higher density of taste bud-containing fungiform papillae

29

taste: support cells

support taste cells

30

taste: basal cells

responsible for replenishing cells

31

taste: taste cells

one of 3 different cells types that work together to produce/ sustain taste

*lack an axon*

32

nucleus of the solitary tract (NST)

first stop for taste, controls coughing and gaging reflexes

33

VPM

sends inputs to the gustatory cortex in the insula

34

salty: whr are receptors located/ innervated?

funigform, CN V

35

sour: whr are receptors located/ innervated?

folliate papillae, CNIX and CN V

36

bitter: whr are receptors located/ innervated?

vallate papillae, CN IX

37

amiloride sensitive channel

non-voltage gated channels that directly sense salt

38

salt: sensation mechanism

direct sensation of salt via amiloride channel

39

sour sensation mechanism

direct sensation of acid

40

sweet

G-protein coupled receptor system,
uses TIR receptor and phospholipase C
similar to bitter, umami

41

bitter

G-protein coupled receptor system,
uses TIR receptor and phospholipase C
similar to sweet, umami

42

umami

G-protein coupled receptor system for glutamate,

uses TIR receptor and phospholipase C
similar to sweet, bitter

43

insula

flavor, an integration of texture, taste, smell

44

atrophic rhinitis

reduced olfactory abilities

45

diabetes

reduced olfactory abilities

46

chronic renal failure

reduced olfactory and gustatory abilities

47

alzheimer's disease

reduced olfactory abilities due to loss of receptors

48

cystic fibrosis

enhanced olfactory and gustatory abilities, may be due to thicker mucous trapping odorants

49

epilepsy

enhanced olfactory and gustatory abilities